news 2016


Life Sciences

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Chemistry - Life Sciences - 21.12.2016
Light-induced vesicle explosions to mimic cellular reactions
Light-induced vesicle explosions to mimic cellular reactions
Cells are the site of a multitude of chemical reactions, the precision of which is envied by scientists.

Life Sciences - Health - 21.12.2016
Optical control of a neuroreceptor alleviates chronic pain
Optical control of a neuroreceptor alleviates chronic pain
Pain serves as a valuable warning signal, but when it becomes chronic, pain should be considered as a real disease.

Life Sciences - Environment - 21.12.2016
The blob can learn—and teach!
The blob can learn—and teach!
It isn't an animal, a plant, or a fungus. The slime mold ( Physarum polycephalum ) is a strange, creeping, bloblike organism made up of one giant cell. Though it has no brain, it can learn from experience, as biologists at the Research Centre on Animal Cognition (CNRS, Université Toulouse III—Paul Sabatier) previously demonstrated.

Life Sciences - 20.12.2016
A double agent to fight hepatitis C
A double agent to fight hepatitis C
Immunostaining of three proteins (in blue, red and green) from hepatitis C virus that replicates within the cytoplasm of an infected cell.

Life Sciences - Economics / Business - 16.12.2016
Conflicts of interest and publications on GM Bt crops
Three INRA researchers have analyzed the scientific literature on the efficacy or durability of Bt transgenic plants in terms of the possible link of interest between this research and the biotechnology industries. They publish their results in the journal PLOS ONE of 15 December 2016. They show that 40% of the publications studied present a financial conflict of interest 1 .

Health - Life Sciences - 14.12.2016
Testosterone for nerve fibre repair
To protect against attack, the body uses natural repair processes. What is involved in the spontaneous regeneration of the myelin sheath surrounding nerve fibres' This is the question addressed by researchers in Unit 1195, ‘Neuroprotective, Neuroregenerative and Remyelinating Small Molecules' (Inserm/Paris-Sud University).

Life Sciences - Health - 12.12.2016
Neurons paralyze us during REM sleep
Neurons paralyze us during REM sleep
During REM sleep, the brain inhibits the motor system, which makes the sleeper completely immobile. CNRS researchers working in the Centre de Recherche en Neurosciences de Lyon (CNRS/Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1/INSERM/Université Jean Monnet) have identified a population of neurons that is responsible for this transient muscle paralysis.

Astronomy / Space Science - Life Sciences - 02.12.2016
Minimum effort for maximum effect
Ten days after astronaut Thomas Pesquet take-off into space on the Proxima mission, many questions remain about human adaptation to gravity. The research team at Inserm Unit 1093, ‘Cognition, Motor Activity and Sensorimotor Plasticity' (Inserm/Université de Bourgogne), focuses on the manner in which movements that depend on this parameter are performed.

Health - Life Sciences - 01.12.2016
A molecule to regenerate insulin-producing cells in type 1 diabetic patients
Inserm researchers led by Patrick Collombat at Unit 1091,‘Institute of Biology Valrose' (Inserm/CNRS/Nice Sophia Antipolis University), show that GABA, a neurotransmitter that is sometimes used as a dietary supplement, can induce the regeneration of insulin-producing cells. This discovery, confirmed in mice and partially validated in humans, gives new hope to patients with type 1 diabetes.

Life Sciences - Health - 24.11.2016
Intestinal cells stave off bacteria by purging
Intestinal cells stave off bacteria by purging
Though purging is not prescribed as often as it was centuries ago, intestinal cells known as enterocytes frequently resort to this age-old remedy. Researchers from the Immune Response and Development in Insects (CNRS), Molecular Immunorheumatology (INSERM / Université de Strasbourg), and PAM Food Science and Microbiological Processes (AgroSup Dijon / Université de Bourgogne) laboratories have demonstrated that enterocytes attacked by pathogenic bacteria rapidly purge themselves of most of their contents.

Life Sciences - Health - 22.11.2016
The cause of uncombable hair syndrome identified
In 1973, the rare syndrome of uncombable hair or - pili trianguli et canaliculi - was described by a Toulouse dermatologist. More than 40 years later, Michel Simon, Inserm research director his colleagues at the ‘Epidermal Differentiation and Rheumatoid Autoimmunity' Unit [UDEAR] (Inserm/CNRS/Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier University) have identified its genetic cause.

Life Sciences - Health - 21.11.2016
Mitochondria are essential to memory
Numerous studies have shown that using cannabis can lead to shortand long-term memory loss. These effects on memory may be related to the presence of specific receptors on several types of brain cells (glial cells as well as neurons). Inserm researchers led by Giovanni Marsicano (Neurocentre Magendie, U1215) have shown that these effects on memory are related to the presence of these same receptors on the mitochondria, the energy centre of the cell.

Health - Life Sciences - 21.11.2016
Functional human intestine grown from stem cells
American researchers at the Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center and French researchers from Inserm (joint research Unit 913 ‘Neuropathies of Enteric Nervous System and Digestive Diseases', Nantes) have succeeded in generating a functional human intestine using pluripotent human stem cells.

Astronomy / Space Science - Life Sciences - 20.10.2016
Remaining vertical: a feat of perception for plants
Remaining vertical: a feat of perception for plants
Contrary to what happens in humans, plants use gravitational perception to distinguish their angle of inclination while not being destabilised by weight and acceleration forces.

Life Sciences - 19.10.2016
Hepatitis C virus observed under a microscope for the first time
Scientists have finally observed the hepatitis C virus (or HCV) using an electron microscope. This is the first time since the virus became known in 1990. Inserm researchers at Tours (Inserm unit 966, ‘HIV and Hepatitis Viruses: Morphogenesis and Antigenicity') have taken other scientists by surprise, including an American team believed to have accomplished this feat in 2013.

Agronomy / Food Science - Life Sciences - 19.10.2016
Cheese: a matter of love or hate
Cheese: a matter of love or hate
Until now, the reason why some people hate cheese has been a mystery. Researchers at the Centre de Recherche en Neuroscience de Lyon (CNRS/INSERM/Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1/Université Jean Monnet) and the Laboratoire Neuroscience Paris Seine (CNRS/INSERM/UPMC) have just elucidated it. Their results are published online on the Frontiers in Human Neuroscience website.

Life Sciences - 18.10.2016
Scar-free wound healing
Scar-free wound healing
Dorsal view of a Drosophila mutant embryo defective for the Zasp52 gene and marked for the adhesion molecule E-Cadherin (green) and the tubulin (red).

Life Sciences - Health - 05.10.2016
Eating well to grow well: discovery of a missing link
Rénald Delanoue, Inserm Researcher, and his colleagues at the Institute of Biology Valrose in Nice (Inserm-CNRS-Université Côte d'Azur) have identified the missing links in the process that regulates the size of an organism based on the richness of its diet. Their research was conducted on Drosophila , an insect that seems very distant from humans, but the study of which has nonetheless enabled many advances in biomedical research.
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