news 2016


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Results 121 - 131 of 131.


Law - 10.02.2016
Forensic odorology scientifically validated
Forensic odorology scientifically validated
Odorology is a technique that uses specially-trained dogs to identify human scent. It is used in police investigations to establish that an individual has been at the scene of a crime. However, there is no international norm on how these dogs are trained. At the Centre de recherche en neurosciences de Lyon (CNRS/Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1/Inserm), researchers specializing in scents and their memorization have analyzed data, provided since 2003 by the Division of the Technical and Scientific Police (DTSP, Ecully) on dog performances in scent identification tasks.

Life Sciences - Earth Sciences - 10.02.2016
Plankton network linked to ocean's biological carbon pump revealed
Plankton network linked to ocean’s biological carbon pump revealed
The ocean is the largest carbon sink on the planet. The community of planktonic organisms involved in the removal of carbon from the upper layers of the ocean has now been described by an interdisciplinary team bringing together oceanographers, biologists and computer scientists, principally from the CNRS, UPMC, Nantes University, VIB, EMBL and CEA.

Psychology - Life Sciences - 08.02.2016
Toxoplasmosis: morbid attraction to leopards in parasitized chimpanzees
Researchers from the Centre d'Écologie Fonctionnelle et Évolutive (CNRS/Université de Montpellier/Université Paul Valéry Montpellier 3/EPHE) have shown that chimpanzees infected with toxoplasmosis are attracted by the urine of their natural predators, leopards, but not by urine from other large felines.

Health - Life Sciences - 05.02.2016
Will the globetrotting Zika virus arrive in Europe soon?
Will the globetrotting Zika virus arrive in Europe soon?
We know about chikungunya and dengue fevers, but now there's another virus transmitted by mosquitos: Zika.

Chemistry - Physics - 01.02.2016
Molecular models help to better understand shale gas
Molecular models help to better understand shale gas
Although shale gas development is attracting a lot of attention, the recovery method used, hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, is raising increasing concerns. In order to develop more environmentally friendly methods, researchers need models and simulations validated by experiment and capable of reconstructing the complexity of such geological structures.

Life Sciences - Health - 27.01.2016
Tuberculosis: discovery of a critical stage in the evolution of the bacillus towards pathogenicity
Tuberculosis: discovery of a critical stage in the evolution of the bacillus towards pathogenicity
Porphyran, a polysaccharide present in the cell walls of a red algae that is used notably in the preparation of sushi, is broken down specifically by an enzyme called porphyranase. This new enzymatic activity has been identified in marine bacteria and, surprisingly, in the bacteria that populate the gut of the Japanese.

Agronomy / Food Science - Life Sciences - 22.01.2016
Cats domesticated in China earlier than 3000 BC
Cats domesticated in China earlier than 3000 BC
Were domestic cats brought to China over 5 000 years ago? Or were small cats domesticated in China at that time? There was no way of deciding between these two hypotheses until a team from the 'Archéozoologie, Archéobotanique: Sociétés, Pratiques et Environnements' laboratory (CNRS/MNHN), in collaboration with colleagues from the UK and China 1 , succeeded in determining the species corresponding to cat remains found in agricultural settlements in China, dating from around 3500 BC.

Life Sciences - Environment - 18.01.2016
How ants self-organize to build their nests
How ants self-organize to build their nests
Ants collectively build nests whose size can reach several thousand times that of individual ants and whose architecture is sometimes highly complex. However, their ability to coordinate several thousand individuals when building their nests remains a mystery. To understand the mechanisms involved in this process, researchers from CNRS, Université Toulouse III – Paul Sabatier and Université de Nantes 1 combined behavioral analysis, 3D imaging and computational modeling techniques.

Life Sciences - 18.01.2016
Curiosity is not a "bad" defect in mice
When an unexpected event occurs, it is often necessary to act, even if one does not control all of the consequences.

Life Sciences - Health - 12.01.2016
Is autism hiding in a fold of the brain?
Is autism hiding in a fold of the brain?
Scientists at CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université and AP-HM have identified a cerebral marker specific to autism that can be detected by MRI and is present as from the age of two years. The abnormality thus detected consists in a less deep fold in Broca's area, a region of the brain specialized in language and communication, functions that are impaired in autistic patients.

Health - Agronomy / Food Science - 12.01.2016
Why prostate cancer is more aggressive in obese patients
Why prostate cancer is more aggressive in obese patients
Obesity has direct consequences on health and is associated with the onset of aggressive cancers, but the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are little known. Researchers from the Institut de Pharmacologie et Biologie Structurale (CNRS/Université Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier) 1 have recently elucidated one of these mechanisms in prostate cancer, one of the most common cancers in men: in obese patients, the adipose tissue surrounding the prostate gland facilitates the propagation of tumor cells outside the prostate.

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