news 2016


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Results 41 - 60 of 131.


Life Sciences - Health - 04.10.2016
Invasive insects: an underestimated cost to the world economy
Invasive insects: an underestimated cost to the world economy
Invasive insects cause at least 69 billion euros of damage per annum worldwide.

Physics - 04.10.2016
French-Japanese laboratory to study materials under extreme conditions
French-Japanese laboratory to study materials under extreme conditions
To strengthen their collaboration in materials science and engineering, the CNRS, Université de Lyon, and Tohoku University are launching an international joint unit (UMI) 1 based in Sendai, Japan, on October 4, 2016. Named Engineering Science Lyon – Tohoku for Materials and Systems under Extreme Conditions (ELyTMaX), this new laboratory studies the behavior of materials subject to extreme and complex stress.

Earth Sciences - 03.10.2016
Slow slip events can trigger earthquakes
Slow slip events can trigger earthquakes
In subduction zones, where one tectonic plate slides beneath another, slow, imperceptible slip, known as 'slow earthquakes' or 'slow slip events', can trigger powerful quakes a little further away. This has just been shown by researchers from CNRS, Université Grenoble Alpes and IRD, in collaboration with colleagues at the National Autonomous University of Mexico.

Life Sciences - 29.09.2016
The structure of the BinAB toxin revealed: one small step for Man, a major problem for mosquitoes!
The structure of the BinAB toxin revealed: one small step for Man, a major problem for mosquitoes!
Could we get rid of mosquitoes without polluting the environment? Yes, we can! The BinAB toxin, produced in crystal form by a bacterium, specifically kills the larvae of Culex and Anopheles mosquitoes, but it is inactive on tiger mosquitoes (or Aedes), the vectors for dengue fever and chikungunya.

Social Sciences - Politics - 26.09.2016
The birth of politics in children: the case of dominance
The birth of politics in children: the case of dominance
As they grow up, do children become young Robin Hoods? Depending on their age, they do not allocate resources in the same way between dominant and subordinate individuals. Thus a tendency towards egalitarianism develops and becomes even stronger between the ages of 5 and 8 years. These findings by a team of scientists from the CNRS and the Claude Bernard Lyon 1 (France), Lausanne and Neuchâtel (Switzerland) universities provide a clearer understanding of how the notion of equality develops in human beings, and of their sense of justice.

Chemistry - 22.09.2016
Tracking down the origin of mercury contamination in human hair
Mercury is a potent neurotoxin present in our daily lives and our body can accumulate it over the years.

Earth Sciences - Astronomy / Space Science - 19.09.2016
Shedding light on Pluto's glaciers
Shedding light on Pluto’s glaciers
What is the origin of the large heart-shaped nitrogen glacier revealed in 2015 on Pluto by the New Horizons spacecraft? Two researchers from the Laboratoire de météorologie dynamique (CNRS/École polytechnique/UPMC/ENS Paris) 1 show that Pluto's peculiar insolation and atmosphere favor nitrogen condensation near the equator, in the lower altitude regions, leading to an accumulation of ice at the bottom of Sputnik Planum, a vast topographic basin.

Life Sciences - 16.09.2016
Multiscale quantification of morphodynamics: MorphoLeaf software for 2D shape analysis
Multiscale quantification of morphodynamics: MorphoLeaf software for 2D shape analysis
The different steps of the growth of an Arabidopsis thaliana leaf, from its origin to 2,5mm. Views generated by MorphoLeaf.

Life Sciences - 15.09.2016
How plant roots sense and react to soil flooding
While we already knew that plant roots were capable of sensing many individual soil characteristics (water, nutrients and oxygen availability), we did not have any understanding of how they integrated these signals in order to respond in an appropriate way.

Astronomy / Space Science - Physics - 14.09.2016
Gaia maps the position of a billion stars
Gaia maps the position of a billion stars
With one billion stars mapped in a thousand days, European researchers have shown that they are not afraid to tackle the most daunting tasks.

Life Sciences - Health - 12.09.2016
Low birth rate after cloning: the consequences of highly disruptive interactions between uterus and embryo
Low birth rate after cloning: the consequences of highly disruptive interactions between uterus and embryo
When comparing cloned animal embryos and embryos that come about as a result of artificial insemination, there is a difference in gene expression at the moment implantation occurs in the uterus for more than 5 000 genes. Researchers at INRA and the University of California are shining the spotlight on this critical step for the survival of cloned embryos in cattle.

Life Sciences - Health - 12.09.2016
Low birth rate after cloning: the consequences of highly disruptive interactions between uterus and embryo
Low birth rate after cloning: the consequences of highly disruptive interactions between uterus and embryo
When comparing cloned animal embryos and embryos that come about as a result of artificial insemination, there is a difference in gene expression at the moment implantation occurs in the uterus for more than 5 000 genes. Researchers at INRA and the University of California are shining the spotlight on this critical step for the survival of cloned embryos in cattle.

Life Sciences - Health - 02.09.2016
Placenta in females, muscle mass in males: the dual heritage of a virus
Placenta in females, muscle mass in males: the dual heritage of a virus
It was already known that genes inherited from ancient retroviruses 1 are essential to the placenta in mammals, a finding to which scientists in the Laboratoire Physiologie et Pathologie Moléculaires des Rétrovirus Endogènes et Infectieux (CNRS/Université Paris-Sud) contributed. Today, the same scientists 2 have revealed a new chapter in this astonishing story: these genes of viral origin may also be responsible for the more developed muscle mass seen in males! Their findings are published on 2 September 2016 in PLOS Genetics .

Life Sciences - Health - 30.08.2016
Caffeine reverts memory deficits
Caffeine reverts memory deficits
The mechanism by which caffeine counteracts age-related cognitive deficits in animals has been revealed. The study coordinated by Portuguese researchers from Instituto de Medicina Molecular (iMM Lisboa) and collaborators from Inserm in Lille, France, along with teams from Germany and United States, showed that the abnormal expression of a particular receptor - the adenosine A2A, target for caffeine - in the brain of rats induces an aging-like profile namely memory impairments linked to the loss of stress controlling mechanisms.

Environment - 30.08.2016
DACCIWA: better understanding the impacts of pollution in West Africa
DACCIWA: better understanding the impacts of pollution in West Africa
With an exploding population, massive urbanization and uncontrolled deforestation, West Africa is faced with major change, which could see anthropogenic 1 pollution increase threefold between 2000 and 2030.

Life Sciences - Electroengineering - 24.08.2016
Artificial retinas: promising leads towards clearer vision
Artificial retinas: promising leads towards clearer vision
A major therapeutic challenge, the retinal prostheses that have been under development during the past ten years can enable some blind subjects to perceive light signals, but the image thus restored is still far from being clear. By comparing in rodents the activity of the visual cortex generated artificially by implants against that produced by “natural sight”, scientists from CNRS, CEA, Inserm, AP-HM and Aix-Marseille Université identified two factors that limit the resolution of prostheses.

Astronomy / Space Science - Environment - 24.08.2016
Closest ever exoplanet is potentially habitable
Proxima Centauri, the closest star to the Sun, has a rocky, Earth-sized planet located in the star's habitable zone, where liquid water can exist on the surface. This major discovery was made by an international team of researchers including Julien Morin from the Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier (CNRS/Université de Montpellier), and is published on 25 August 2016 in Nature .

Health - Life Sciences - 05.08.2016
Malaria and toxoplasmosis have an Achilles heel from plants
Malaria and toxoplasmosis have an Achilles heel from plants
To survive, the parasites responsible for malaria and toxoplasmosis depend on mechanisms inherited from the plant world. This is what a team of researchers from CNRS 1 (Institute for Advanced Biosciences, CNRS/INSERM/Université Grenoble Alpes) and the University of Melbourne 2 has shown. They have just published two studies in Cell Microbiology and PLOS Pathogens.

Life Sciences - Health - 03.08.2016
The keys to a major process in DNA repair
Researchers from the Institut Jacques Monod (CNRS/University of Paris Diderot), the Institute of Biology of the Ecole Normale Supérieure (ENS/CNRS/Inserm), and the University of Bristol, have described for the first time in its totality the mechanisms by which DNA damaged by UV radiation is repaired, and how the proteins involved in this process cooperate to ensure its efficiency.

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