news 2017


Life Sciences

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Life Sciences - 13.12.2017
Discovery of world's oldest plesiosaur
Discovery of world’s oldest plesiosaur
While dinosaurs reigned on dry land and in the sky, other reptiles populated the seas and oceans. Of the latter, plesiosaurs, whose means of locomotion may be described as “underwater flight,” formed the most diverse group. But when did they first appear? The discovery of the oldest of these reptiles provides evidence that they had diversified by the start of the Mesozoic Era, during the Triassic Period.

Earth Sciences - Life Sciences - 13.11.2017
World's longest sauropod dinosaur trackway brought to light
World’s longest sauropod dinosaur trackway brought to light
In 2009, the world's largest dinosaur tracks were discovered in the French village of Plagne, in the Jura Mountains. Since then, a series of excavations at the site has uncovered other tracks, sprawling over more than 150 meters. They form the longest sauropod trackway ever to be found.

Psychology - Life Sciences - 08.11.2017
Memory : recognizing images seen briefly ten years previously
Recalling the names of old classmates 50 years after graduation or of favorite childhood television series illustrates the amazing abilities of human memory. Emotion and repeated exposure are both known to play a role in long-term memorization, but why do we remember things that are not emotionally charged and have only been seen or experienced a few times in the past?

Health - Life Sciences - 03.11.2017
Antibiotics affect the efficacy of immunotherapy
A study published in the journal Science by a research team from Gustave Roussy, INSERM, INRA, AP-HP, IHU Médiaterranée Infections* and Paris-Sud University shows that prescribed antibiotics impair the efficacy of immunotherapy in cancer patients. It is important to consider that more than 20% of patients living with cancer receive antibiotics.

Life Sciences - History / Archeology - 02.11.2017
Genetic history : Searching for the African roots of Noir Marron communities
Genetic history : Searching for the African roots of Noir Marron communities
New genetic data bear witness to transatlantic ties severed by slavery and triangular trade. Scientists 1 from the Anthropologie Moléculaire et Imagerie de Synthèse (CNRS/Université Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier/Paris Descartes University) and Ecological Anthropology and Ethnobiology (CNRS/MNHN) research units have shown that members of Maroon communities in South America - formed over four centuries ago by Africans who escaped slavery - have remarkably preserved their African genetic heritage (98%).

Health - Life Sciences - 26.10.2017
Discovery of a potential therapeutic target to combat trypanosomes
Discovery of a potential therapeutic target to combat trypanosomes
Yaser Hashem's team at the Laboratoire Architecture et Réactivité de l'ARN at CNRS's has discovered a new potential therapeutic target – located in the ribosome – to combat trypanosomes parasites.

Psychology - Life Sciences - 23.10.2017
Interaction Between Brain and Heart May be New Indicator of State of Consciousness
How do we know whether a patient is conscious when he or she is unable to communicate? According to an Inserm study conducted in 127 patients aged 17 to 80, changes in heartbeat in response to sound stimulation is a good indicator of state of consciousness. This is what Inserm researcher Jacobo Sitt and his team, based at the Brain & Spine Institute (ICM) at Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, AP-HP, demonstrate in an article published in Annals of neurology.

Life Sciences - 20.10.2017
Water striders illustrate evolutionary processes
Water striders illustrate evolutionary processes
How do new species arise and diversify in nature? Natural selection offers an explanation, but the genetic and environmental conditions behind this mechanism are still poorly understood. A team led by Abderrahman Khila—CNRS Senior Researcher at the Institute of Functional Genomics of Lyon (CNRS / ENS de Lyon / Claude Bernard Lyon 1 University), or IGFL—has just figured out how water striders (family Veliidae) of the genus Rhagovelia developed fan-like structures at the tips of their legs.

Life Sciences - Environment - 13.10.2017
Gutters teem with inconspicuous life
Gutters teem with inconspicuous life
Scientists from the BOREA Biology of Aquatic Organisms and Ecosystems research unit (CNRS / MNHN / IRD / UPMC / University of Caen / Université des Antilles)—together with a colleague from the Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology in Marburg, Germany—have shown that Parisian street gutters are oases of microscopic life, home to microalgae, fungi, sponges, and mollusks.

Health - Life Sciences - 12.10.2017
BioPrint: Inserm Launches its Second Accelerator of Technological Research
The creation of accelerators of technological research (ART) is a priority of Inserm's strategic plan.

Life Sciences - Health - 11.10.2017
Identification of a molecular mechanism associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder
A research team in psychiatry at CEA-Neurospin, together with the Mondor Institute of Biomedical Research (INSERM) and the Henri-Mondor (AP-HP) university hospitals, has shown that a genetic variant associated with several psychiatric conditions alters a prefrontal-limbic network, which may increase the risk of developing schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.

Health - Life Sciences - 09.10.2017
Type 1 diabetes and the microbiota : MAIT cells as biomarkers and new therapeutic targets
Together with colleagues from AP-HP Necker–Enfants Malades Hospital in Paris, scientists from the Cochin Institute (CNRS / INSERM / Paris Descartes University) have discovered that the onset of type 1 diabetes is preceded by modification of MAIT lymphocytes. These cells—associated with mucosae and able to recognize elements of the microbiota—could therefore serve as new biomarkers for early detection and prevention of the illness.

Health - Life Sciences - 06.10.2017
Colon cancer: APC protein affects immunity by preventing pre-cancerous inflammation
Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is a gene whose mutations are associated with a rare, hereditary form of colorectal cancer known as familial adenomatous polyposis.

Life Sciences - Health - 04.10.2017
Cell death by necrosis is not an accidental process
Cell death by necrosis is not an accidental process
Drosophila testes visualized by confocal microscopy. Necrotic germ cells are visualized in red (white arrowheads), cell nuclei in blue. © Victor Girard Cell death allows elimination of supernumerary cells during development or of abnormal cells throughout life. Physiological cell death is tightly regulated to prevent pathologies such as degenerative diseases or cancers, which often occur due to excessive or absent cell death, respectively.

Mechanical Engineering - Life Sciences - 04.10.2017

Health - Life Sciences - 28.09.2017
How do arteries protect themselves from atherosclerosis?
Associated with an aging population and the development of metabolic syndrome, atherosclerosis is a leading cause of death worldwide. Researchers from Inserm Unit 970, the "Paris Cardiovascular Research Center" (Inserm/Université Paris Descartes), have succeeded in revealing the mechanisms underlying the formation of atherosclerotic plaques.

Life Sciences - Agronomy / Food Science - 26.09.2017
Research and agricultural higher education publications : 1st Rank worldwide in citations for animal and plant science
Research and agricultural higher education publications : 1st Rank worldwide in citations for animal and plant science
An exploratory study carried out by Inra inside Agreenium's network enabled to identify French research and agricultural higher education outlines worldwide.

Health - Life Sciences - 21.09.2017
"Humanized" Mouse Model Developed to Study Hepatitis B Infection
The ANRS consortium "Humanized Mouse Models for Viral Hepatitis"1, made up of 6 teams of researchers, has developed a mouse model for studying the interaction between the immune system and the liver following infection by the hepatitis B virus. This research, coordinated by Dr. Hélène Strick-Marchand (Inserm joint unit 1223, "Physiopathology of the Immune System", Institut Pasteur), responds to a real lack of animal models for studying this disease and thus opens up the possibilities for evaluating new therapeutic strategies.

Life Sciences - 13.09.2017
Synaptic receptor mobility :discovery of a new mechanism for controlling memory
Synaptic receptor mobility :discovery of a new mechanism for controlling memory
Researchers in Bordeaux recently discovered a new mechanism for storing information in synapses and a means of controlling the storage process. The breakthrough moves science closer to unveiling the mystery of the molecular mechanisms of memory and learning processes. The research, carried out primarily by researchers at the Interdisciplinary Institute for Neurosciences (CNRS/Université de Bordeaux) and the Bordeaux Imaging Center (CNRS/Université de Bordeaux/Inserm) 1 , appears in the 13 september 2017 edition of Nature .

Physics - Life Sciences - 12.09.2017
Magnetic cellular
Magnetic cellular "Legos" for the regenerative medicine of the future
By incorporating magnetic nanoparticles in cells and developing a system using miniaturized magnets, researchers at the Laboratoire Matière et Systèmes Complexes (CNRS/Université Paris Diderot), in c
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