Earth Sciences

Results 21 - 40 of 61.

Earth Sciences - 18.05.2021
Colonisation of the Antilles by South American fauna: giant sunken islands as a passageway?
Communication from CNRS on May 18, 2021. Publication of LGL-TPE in the June 2021 issue of Earth-Science Reviews. Fossils of land animals from South America have been found in the Antilles. The appearance/disappearance of archipelagos is due to tectonic plate movements and glacial-interglacial cycles.

Earth Sciences - 10.05.2021
Present-day geodynamics of the Western Alps: new insights from earthquake mechanisms
Publication of LGL-TPE in the journal Solid Earth on July 21, 2021. Due to the low to moderate seismicity of the European Western Alps, few focal mechanisms are available in this region to this day, and the corresponding current seismic stress and strain fields remain partly elusive. The development of dense seismic networks in past decades now provides a substantial number of seismic records in the 0-5 magnitude range.

Earth Sciences - 11.04.2021
A poorly mixed mantle transition zone and its thermal state inferred from seismic waves
Study by the LGL-TPE published Geoscience on November 4, 2021. The abrupt changes in mineralogical properties across the Earth's mantle transition zone substantially impact convection and thermochemical fluxes between the upper and lower mantle. While the 410-km discontinuity at the top of the mantle transition zone is detected with all types of seismic waves, the 660-km boundary is mostly invisible to underside P-wave reflections (P660P).

History / Archeology - Earth Sciences - 09.12.2020
New evidence: Neandertals buried their dead
New evidence: Neandertals buried their dead
Was burial of the dead practiced by Neandertals or is it an innovation specific to our species? There are indications in favour of the first hypothesis but some scientists remain sceptical. For the first time in Europe, however, a multi-disciplinary team led by researchers at the CNRS and the Muséum national d'histoire naturelle (France) and the University of the Basque Country (Spain) 1 has demonstrated, using a variety of criteria, that a Neandertal child was buried, probably around 41,000 years ago, at the Ferrassie site (Dordogne).

Environment - Earth Sciences - 07.12.2020
Getting to the bottom of Arctic landslides
Getting to the bottom of Arctic landslides
Erosion of the frozen soil of Arctic regions, known as permafrost, is creating large areas of subsidence, which has catastrophic impact in these regions sensitive to climate change. As the mechanisms behind these geological events are poorly understood, researchers from the Géosciences Paris Sud (GEOPS) laboratory (CNRS / Université Paris-Saclay), in cooperation with the Melnikov Permafrost Institute in Yakutsk, Russia, conducted a cold room 1 simulation of landslides, or slumps, caused by accelerated breakdown of the permafrost.

Earth Sciences - 23.10.2020
Deep magma facilitates the movement of tectonic plates
A small amount of molten rock located under tectonic plates encourages them to move. This is what scientists from the Laboratoire de géologie de Lyon: Terre, planètes et environnement (CNRS/ENS de Lyon/Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1) have recently discovered. Their new model takes into account not only the velocity of seismic waves but also the way in which they are attenuated by the medium they pass through.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 08.10.2020
Double jeopardy for ecologically rare birds and terrestrial mammals
Double jeopardy for ecologically rare birds and terrestrial mammals
Common assumptions notwithstanding, rare species can play unique and essential ecological roles. After studying two databases that together cover all known terrestrial mammals and birds worldwide, scientists from the CNRS, the Foundation for Biodiversity Research (FRB), Université Grenoble Alpes, and the University of Montpellier 1 have demonstrated that, though these species are found on all continents, they are more threatened by human pressures than ecologically common species and will also be more impacted by future climate change.

Earth Sciences - 23.07.2020
Reduction in human-induced seismic noise during the pandemic lockdown
Reduction in human-induced seismic noise during the pandemic lockdown
A team of 76 seismologists, including several French scientists from the CNRS, the Paris Institute of Earth Physics (IPGP), Université de Paris, Université de Strasbourg and the French National Research Institute for Sustainable Development (IRD) 1 discovered that the lockdown measures used in the fight against the spread of COVID-19 have led to a 50% reduction in seismic noise due to human activity across the globe between January-June 2020.

Earth Sciences - Astronomy / Space - 18.05.2020
Mars: where mud flows like lava
Mars: where mud flows like lava
The surface of the planet Mars bears probable traces of -sedimentary volcanism-, a geological phenomenon that leads to the eruption of mud from underground. But how does a mixture of sediment and water behave in the open air on the Red Planet? Conditions there are extremely different from those on Earth - atmospheric pressure is 150 times lower and temperatures are generally negative.

Earth Sciences - 15.04.2020
A new tool to predict volcanic eruptions
A new tool to predict volcanic eruptions
Earth's atmosphere is made up of 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen, a mixture that is unique in the Solar System 1 . The oxygen was produced by some of the first living organisms. But where did the nitrogen come from? Did it escape from Earth's mantle through volcanic activity? To try to answer these questions, Jabrane Labidi, a CNRS researcher at the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (CNRS/IPGP/IGN) 2 and his colleagues collected samples of gas from several volcanic sites on our planet.

Earth Sciences - 18.12.2019
Submarine cables: billions of potential seismic sensors!
Submarine cables: billions of potential seismic sensors!
Scientists have for the first time shown that it is possible to detect the propagation of seismic waves on the seafloor using submarine telecommunications cables. According to their observations, this existing infrastructure could be used to detect earthquakes, as well as swell and underwater noise. The results are published on December 18, 2019, by researchers from the CNRS, OCA, IRD and Université Côte d'Azur working together in the Géoazur laboratory, in collaboration with the company Fébus Optics and the Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille (CNRS/Aix-Marseille Université) 1.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 09.10.2019
Bee pollination boosts the profitability of oilseed rape
Bee pollination boosts the profitability of oilseed rape
Researchers from INRA and CNRS have shown for the first time that bee pollination surpasses the use of pesticides in yield and especially in profitability of oilseed rape. The team of researchers analysed data collected over four years in farmers' fields in an agricultural plain in Deux-Sèvres (Nouvelle Aquitaine, western France).

Astronomy / Space - Earth Sciences - 07.01.2019
Mars 2020 - geology and the conquest of space
Cathy Quantin-Nataf, Gilles Dromart and Gilles Montagnac of the Laboratoire de Géologie de Lyon (LGL-TPE) are members of a research team developing one of the instruments that will go aboard the rover of the Mars 2020 Mission: the SuperCam. Watch live as NASA's next rover, Mars 2020, is built and tested in the Spacecraft Assembly Facility at the agency's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 07.11.2018
Launch of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS) : Earth System Science enters the Big Data era
Wednesday 7 November 2018 officially launches the European Plate Observing System (EPOS) for the pooling and streamlining of data and services of all kinds for the study of our planet. This initiative, for which the CNRS and BRGM are working together with the French Ministry for Higher Education, Research and Innovation, in part aims to better understand the mechanisms behind earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 11.04.2018
The dinosaur menu, as revealed by calcium
The dinosaur menu, as revealed by calcium
By studying calcium in fossil remains in deposits in Morocco and Niger, researchers have been able to reconstruct the food chains of the past, thus explaining how so many predators could coexist in the dinosaurs' time.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 04.04.2018
The great acceleration reaches new heights
The great acceleration reaches new heights
An international team of researchers 1 , including a CNRS researcher at the department of Écologie et Dynamique des Systèmes Anthropisés (CNRS / Université de Picardie Jules Verne) has observed an acceleration in the increase of biodiversity on mountain peaks in Europe.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 26.02.2018
Humans Changed the Ecosystems of Central Africa More Than 2,600 Years Ago
Fields, streets and cities, but also forests planted in rank and file, and dead straight rivers: humans shape nature to better suit their purposes, and not only since the onset of industrialization. Such influences are well documented in the Amazonian rainforest. On the other hand, the influence of humans was debated in Central Africa where major interventions seem to have occurred there 2,600 years ago: Potsdam geoscientist Yannick Garcin and his team have published a report on their findings in the journal PNAS.

Earth Sciences - History / Archeology - 01.12.2017
Bronze Age artifacts used meteoric iron
You may already be surprised to hear there are iron objects dating back to the Bronze Age, but their meteorite origin is even more astonishing. Though meteorites had already been recognized as one source of this metal, the scientific community couldn't determine whether they accounted for most or simply a few Bronze Age iron artifacts.

Earth Sciences - Astronomy / Space - 30.11.2017
New early signals to quantify the magnitude of strong earthquakes
After an earthquake, there is a disturbance in the field of gravity almost instantaneously. This could be recorded before the seismic waves that seismologists usually analyze. In a study published in Science on December 1, 2017, a team formed of researchers from CNRS, IPGP, the Université Paris Diderot 1 and Caltech has managed to observe these weak signals related to gravity and to understand where they come from.

Earth Sciences - Life Sciences - 13.11.2017
World's longest sauropod dinosaur trackway brought to light
World’s longest sauropod dinosaur trackway brought to light
In 2009, the world's largest dinosaur tracks were discovered in the French village of Plagne, in the Jura Mountains. Since then, a series of excavations at the site has uncovered other tracks, sprawling over more than 150 meters. They form the longest sauropod trackway ever to be found.