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Health - Environment - 11.02.2021
Heat islands and lack of running water promote dengue fever in Delhi, India
Heat islands and lack of running water promote dengue fever in Delhi, India
What if more inclusive urban planning for poor populations was key to fighting dengue fever? This is what researchers from the CNRS, the Institut Pasteur and the Indian Council of Medical Research 1 have demonstrated using a geographical approach applied to the greater city of Delhi (India). Their study is published in the journal PLOS Neglected Tropical Disease on 11 February 2021.

History / Archeology - Environment - 27.01.2021
History of the Champagne vineyards revealed
History of the Champagne vineyards revealed
Although the reputation of Champagne is well established, the history of Champagne wines and vineyards is poorly documented. However, a research team led by scientists from the CNRS and the Université de Montpellier at the Institut des sciences de l'évolution de Montpellier 1 has just lifted the veil on this history by analysing the archaeological grape seeds from excavations carried out in Troyes and Reims.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 07.12.2020
Getting to the bottom of Arctic landslides
Getting to the bottom of Arctic landslides
Erosion of the frozen soil of Arctic regions, known as permafrost, is creating large areas of subsidence, which has catastrophic impact in these regions sensitive to climate change. As the mechanisms behind these geological events are poorly understood, researchers from the Géosciences Paris Sud (GEOPS) laboratory (CNRS / Université Paris-Saclay), in cooperation with the Melnikov Permafrost Institute in Yakutsk, Russia, conducted a cold room 1 simulation of landslides, or slumps, caused by accelerated breakdown of the permafrost.

Environment - 07.12.2020
Nature's contributions to people found to be in decline
Nature’s contributions to people found to be in decline
Over the past 50 years, declining biodiversity has put many of nature's contributions to people at risk.  This is the conclusion reached by fifteen leading international experts, including a French ethnoecologist 1 at the CNRS (French National Centre for Scientific Research).

Environment - 09.11.2020
From green to orange, where does the diversity of cyanobacteria colours come from?
From green to orange, where does the diversity of cyanobacteria colours come from?
Cyanobacteria, which are often called blue algae, can actually adopt colours ranging from green to orange via pink, depending on the dominant photosynthetic pigment in the cells of particular species. Not all cyanobacteria, however, capture light in the same way: Prochlorococcus , for example, the most abundant cyanobacterium in the ocean, preferentially absorbs violet and blue wavelengths, while its cousin Synechococcus captures blue, green or both, depending on its pigment type.

Environment - 14.10.2020
Unexpectedly large number of trees populate the Western Sahara and the Sahel
Unexpectedly large number of trees populate the Western Sahara and the Sahel
The number of trees inhabiting the Western Sahara, the Sahel and the Sudanian zone has exceeded the expectations of scientists, with more than 1.8 billion having been located thanks to an international collaboration including researchers from the CNRS 1 . High-resolution remote sensing made it possible to gather a multitude of satellite images of these areas, which were then analysed by applying an artificial intelligence pattern recognition method.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 08.10.2020
Double jeopardy for ecologically rare birds and terrestrial mammals
Double jeopardy for ecologically rare birds and terrestrial mammals
Common assumptions notwithstanding, rare species can play unique and essential ecological roles.  After studying two databases that together cover all known terrestrial mammals and birds worldwide, scientists from the CNRS, the Foundation for Biodiversity Research (FRB), Université Grenoble Alpes, and the University of Montpellier 1 have demonstrated that, though these species are found on all continents, they are more threatened by human pressures than ecologically common species and will also be more impacted by future climate change.

Astronomy / Space Science - Environment - 05.08.2020
Ammonia-rich hail sheds new light on Jupiter's weather
Ammonia-rich hail sheds new light on Jupiter’s weather
New Juno results suggest that the violent thunderstorms taking place in Jupiter's atmosphere may form ammonia-rich hail, or 'mushballs', that play a key role in the planet's atmospheric dynamics. This theory, developed using data from Juno's microwave radiometer by the Juno team, is described in two publications led by a researcher at the Laboratoire Lagrange (CNRS/Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur/Université Côte d'Azur) with support from the CNES.

Health - Environment - 22.07.2020
Livestock expansion is a factor in global pandemics
Livestock expansion is a factor in global pandemics
The growth of global livestock farming is a threat to our biodiversity and also increases the health risks to both humans and domesticated animals. The patterns that link them are at the heart of a study published in Biological Conservation by a scientist from the Institute of Evolution Sciences of Montpellier (ISEM - CNRS/Université de Montpellier/IRD/EPHE) and the French Agricultural Research Centre for International Development's (CIRAD) ASTRE laboratory.

Environment - Mathematics - 06.07.2020
Behind the dead-water phenomenon
Behind the dead-water phenomenon
What makes ships mysteriously slow down or even stop as they travel, even though their engines are working properly? This was first observed in 1893 and was described experimentally in 1904 without all the secrets of this "dead water" being understood. An interdisciplinary team from the CNRS and the University of Poitiers has explained this phenomenon for the first time: the speed changes in ships trapped in dead water are due to waves that act like an undulating conveyor belt on which the boats move back and forth.

Environment - 11.05.2020
A century of misunderstanding of a key tool in the economics of natural resources
In the past few weeks, oil prices have fallen to record lows. This development was not predicted by the Hotelling rule, an equation proposed in 1931 that remains central to the economics of natural resources today. In an article published on 11 May 2020 in the Canadian Journal of Economics , economists Roberto Ferreira da Cunha, of the Berkeley Research Group, and Antoine Missemer, of the CNRS, present the results of a groundbreaking historical survey of documents from Harold Hotelling's archives.

Environment - 06.04.2020
Stronger Atlantic currents drive temperate species to migrate towards the Artic Ocean
Stronger Atlantic currents drive temperate species to migrate towards the Artic Ocean
The Arctic Ocean increasingly resembles the Atlantic, not only regarding its temperature but also the species that live there. However, scientists from the CNRS and Université Laval, Quebec 1 showed that an unprecedented strengthening of Atlantic currents is playing a major role in this phenomenon called 'Atlantification'.

Environment - 12.12.2019
Plant Advanced Technologies - PAT launches a new bio-herbicide discovery program awarded under the
Plant Advanced Technologies - PAT launches a new bio-herbicide discovery program awarded under the "Programme d’Investissement d’Avenir III"
Plant Advanced Technologies - PAT announces the allocation of exceptional funding of ¤ 660,000 by the office of Prime Minister Édouard Philippe, as part of the national innovation contest "Programme d'Investissements d'Avenir III"*. The project associating INRA and ITEPMAI, entitled HerbiScan, enters the category "Innovative Agriculture" and aims to discover and develop new herbicides of plant origin, which will be in adequacy with the stakes of the current agriculture (new active molecules more respectful of the environment).

Environment - Life Sciences - 27.11.2019
Neonicotinoids: despite EU moratorium, bees still at risk
Neonicotinoids: despite EU moratorium, bees still at risk
Since 2013, a European Union (EU) moratorium has restricted the application of three neonicotinoids to crops that attract bees because of the harmful effects they are deemed to have on these insects. Yet researchers from the CNRS, INRA, and the Institut de l'Abeille (ITSAP) have just demonstrated that residues of these insecticides-and especially of imidacloprid-can still be detected in rape nectar from 48% of the plots of studied fields, their concentrations varying greatly over the years.

Environment - 27.11.2019
Neonicotinoids: despite EU moratorium, bees still at risk
Neonicotinoids: despite EU moratorium, bees still at risk
Since 2013, a European Union (EU) moratorium has restricted the application of three neonicotinoids to crops that attract bees because of the harmful effects they are deemed to have on these insects. Yet researchers from the CNRS, INRA, and the Institut de l'Abeille (ITSAP) have just demonstrated that residues of these insecticides-and especially of imidacloprid-can still be detected in rape nectar from 48% of the plots of studied fields, their concentrations varying greatly over the years.

Environment - Agronomy / Food Science - 15.11.2019
Weed diversity mitigates crop yield losses
Weed diversity mitigates crop yield losses
Scientists from Inra and the Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna (Italy) have shown that not all weed communities (spontaneous vegetation) generate crop yield losses, even in unweeded conditions, and that high weed diversity is associated to a reduced risk of important crop yield losses. Published in Nature Sustainability , these results provide new grounds for sustainable weed management.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 09.10.2019
Bee pollination boosts the profitability of oilseed rape
Bee pollination boosts the profitability of oilseed rape
Researchers from INRA and CNRS have shown for the first time that bee pollination surpasses the use of pesticides in yield and especially in profitability of oilseed rape. The team of researchers analysed data collected over four years in farmers' fields in an agricultural plain in Deux-Sèvres (Nouvelle Aquitaine, western France).

Environment - 02.08.2019
More complex crop mosaics produce greater biodiversity in agricultural landscapes
More complex crop mosaics produce greater biodiversity in agricultural landscapes
Researchers from INRA and CNRS 1 , in collaboration with German, Spanish, English and Canadian teams, have examined the effect of field size and crop diversity on biodiversity in agricultural landscapes. Published in PNAS , their work shows that increasing the complexity of the crop mosaic produces a considerable (and largely under-exploited) benefit in conserving and restoring the biodiversity of farm landscapes, while maintaining areas of land under agricultural production.

Environment - Life Sciences - 29.07.2019
Aboveground vegetation biomass in the tropics no longer has a positive impact on carbon stocks
Aboveground vegetation biomass in the tropics no longer has a positive impact on carbon stocks
Scientists from INRA, CEA, CNRS, CNES and several international universities 1 have quantified - over the 2010-2017 period ' the time changes in the carbon stocks of aboveground vegetation biomass in the tropics. One main result is that over the studied time period, these stocks are almost constant: gains in biomass carbon stocks in some regions of the tropics are compensated by losses due to deforestation or diebacks linked to climate impacts (in particular the El Niño events).

Environment - 26.06.2019
Organic farming enhances honeybee colony performance
Organic farming enhances honeybee colony performance
A team of researchers from the CNRS, INRA, and the University of La Rochelle is now the first to have demonstrated that organic farming benefits honeybee colonies, especially when food is scarce in late spring. The scientists analysed six years of data collected through a unique system for monitoring domesticated bees that is unparalleled in Europe.
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