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Environment - Life Sciences - 21.06.2022
Arctic permafrost is a reservoir of resistance genes to certain antibiotics
Arctic permafrost is a reservoir of resistance genes to certain antibiotics
Global climate change is particularly noticeable in the Arctic since it is warming twice as fast as temperate regions.

Life Sciences - Health - 16.06.2022
Researchers described how the cerebellum modulates our ability to socialize
The cerebellum is essential for sensorimotor control but also contributes to higher cognitive functions including social behaviors. In a recent study, an international research consortium including scientists from Inserm – University of Montpellier (France), the Institut de Neurociències Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (INc-UAB) (Spain), and the University of Lausanne (Switzerland) uncovered how dopamine in the cerebellum modulates social behaviors via its action on D2 receptors (D2R).

Life Sciences - Health - 25.05.2022
Women-specific mechanisms may contribute to tumor progression
Women-specific mechanisms may contribute to tumor progression
Researchers have demonstrated the role of a non-coding RNA in the development of aggressive tumors, particularly in breast cancer. The study, conducted in collaboration between the Institut Curie, Inserm, CNRS, Institut Paoli Calmettes and Aix-Marseille University , has just been published in the journal Cell .

Health - Life Sciences - 17.05.2022
Phage Therapy: A Model to Predict Its Efficacy against Pathogenic Bacteria
Phage Therapy: A Model to Predict Its Efficacy against Pathogenic Bacteria
Antibiotic resistance represents a major public health challenge, associated with a high mortality rate. While bacteriophages - viruses that kill bacteria - could be a solution for fighting antibiotic-resistant pathogens, various obstacles stand in the way of their clinical development.

Life Sciences - Health - 10.05.2022
Healthy cells can impact tumour progression during embryonic development
Healthy cells can impact tumour progression during embryonic development
Half of childhood cancers arise during the development of the human embryo, which greatly complicates research into these diseases. The team of Valérie Castellani, CNRS senior researcher at the Mechanisms in Integrated Life Sciences (MeLiS) laboratory (CNRS / INSERM / Claude Bernard Lyon 1 University) has thus developed a model that optimally simulates the human embryonic environment by grafting human cancer cells into a chick embryo.

Life Sciences - Social Sciences - 02.05.2022
A link between social network size and brain structure?
A link between social network size and brain structure?
The more social relationships we have, the more certain structures in our brain are developed. This has been the hypothesis of various neuroscience research projects for several years. With previous findings having highlighted the role of our social environment as one of the key factors behind the expansion of the cerebral cortex, researchers from Inserm and Université Lyon Claude Bernard Lyon 1, in collaboration with the University of Pennsylvania, went one step further in elucidating this link.

Life Sciences - 21.04.2022
Dynamic finite-element simulations reveal early origin of complex human birth pattern
Dynamic finite-element simulations reveal early origin of complex human birth pattern
An interdisciplinary and international research team realized the first 4-dimensional simulation of hominin birth, constituting an important methodological advance for paleo-obstetrics. The researchers found that australopithecines gave birth to relatively small brained newborns, implying that they were helpless at birth similar to modern humans and their mothers thus needed the help of group members.

Life Sciences - Health - 15.04.2022
Decoding a direct dialog between the gut microbiota and the brain
Decoding a direct dialog between the gut microbiota and the brain
Gut microbiota by-products circulate in the bloodstream, regulating host physiological processes including immunity, metabolism and brain functions. Scientists from the Institut Pasteur (a partner research organization of Université Paris Cité), Inserm and the CNRS have discovered that hypothalamic neurons in an animal model directly detect variations in bacterial activity and adapt appetite and body temperature accordingly.

Health - Life Sciences - 14.04.2022
Colon cancer: how mutation of the APC gene disrupts lymphocyte migration
Migrating human T lymphocytes revealing a broad protrusion at the leading edge and long adhesive protrusions at the rear. Image obtained by confocal fluorescence microscopy: filamentous actin, pink; VLA4 adhesion protein, blue. Institut Pasteur/Lymphocyte Cell Biology. Image by Marta Mastrogiovanni In patients with familial adenomatous polyposis, a genetic disease predisposing to colon cancer, mutations of the APC gene induce the formation of intestinal polyps, but also reduce immune system activity.

Life Sciences - Pharmacology - 11.04.2022
Epigenetic treatments: New allies for chemotherapies?
If genetics is interested in gene sequencing, epigenetics studies how genes are going to be used, or not used, by a cell. The epigenome of a cell represents the set of chemical modifications of the DNA or associated proteins that will determine the expression of the genes and thus the cell's identity.

Life Sciences - Health - 16.03.2022
Discovery of an immune escape mechanism promoting Listeria infection of the central nervous system
Discovery of an immune escape mechanism promoting Listeria infection of the central nervous system
Some "hypervirulent" strains of Listeria monocytogenes have a greater capacity to infect the central nervous system. Scientists from the Institut Pasteur, Université Paris Cité, Inserm and the Paris Public Hospital Network (AP-HP) have discovered a mechanism that enables cells infected with Listeria monocytogenes to escape immune responses.

Life Sciences - 23.02.2022
Wolbachia manipulates insect spermatozoa with a nuclear toxin
Publication of the LBMC in the journal Current biology on February 7, 2022. CNRS-INSB communication on February 21, 2022. Wolbachia are widespread endosymbiotic bacteria that manipulate the reproduction of arthropods through a diversity of cellular mechanisms. In cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), a sterility syndrome originally discovered in the mosquito Culex pipiens , uninfected eggs fertilized by sperm from infected males are selectively killed during embryo development following the abortive segregation of paternal chromosomes in the zygote.

Life Sciences - Health - 21.02.2022
Transplantation chemotherapy eliminates regenerative capacity of brain's innate immune cells
Transplantation chemotherapy eliminates regenerative capacity of brain’s innate immune cells
Brain microglia (green) initiating expression of cell division marker (red), but unable divide due to co-expression of a senescence marker (blue), due to the chemotherapy treatment (busulfan). K. Sailor/ PM Lledo, Institut Pasteur. Annually over 50,000 bone marrow transplantations occur worldwide as a therapy for multiple cancerous and non-cancerous diseases.

Life Sciences - 21.02.2022
Rats can estimate their timing accuracy
Rats can estimate their timing accuracy
Thanks to their capacity for introspection, human beings are able to estimate the duration of their actions. When they perform a task - especially a time-based task - they can evaluate their performance and correct themselves in order to do better next time.

Paleontology - Life Sciences - 21.02.2022
Balkanatolia: the forgotten continent that sheds light on the evolution of mammals
Balkanatolia: the forgotten continent that sheds light on the evolution of mammals
A team of geologists and palaeontologists has discovered that, some 50 million years ago, there was a low-lying continent separating Europe from Asia that they have named Balkanatolia. Geographical changes 40 to 34 million years ago connected this continent to its two neighbours, paving the way for the replacement of European mammals by Asian mammals.

Health - Life Sciences - 25.01.2022
Study of gene therapy treatment in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome
Teams from the AP-HP, University of Paris, Inserm, within the Imagine Institute, the University College of London, and Généthon, have carried out work on treatment by gene therapy consisting of transplanting the patient's own genetically modified hematopoietic stem cells as part of a phase I/II clinical trial, promoted by Genethon, in 8 patients with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS).

Life Sciences - Psychology - 20.01.2022
New Brain Abnormalities Associated with Child Abuse
New Brain Abnormalities Associated with Child Abuse
In collaboration with a Canadian team, scientists from Inserm and Université de Tours, at Unit 1253 Imaging & Brain1, have shown in post-mortem brain samples that victims of child abuse present specific brain characteristics. The teams have revealed for the first time in humans an increase in the number and maturation of perineuronal nets, dense protein structures surrounding the neurons.

Health - Life Sciences - 11.01.2022
Identification of a novel therapeutic target in Multiple Myeloma
Identification of a novel therapeutic target in Multiple Myeloma
Multiple myeloma is a cancer of the bone marrow, with a life expectancy of less than 5 years post-diagnosis. Proteasome inhibitors, the therapeutic backbone of current treatments, are very effective in treating newly diagnosed cancers but resistance or intolerance to these molecules inevitably develop, leading to relapses.

Life Sciences - 13.12.2021
Experiment gives rise to social conventions between baboons
Experiment gives rise to social conventions between baboons
Shaking hands is an example of a social convention to say hello or goodbye. For the first time, scientists have studied the development of social conventions in non-human primates. Baboons, for example, can also establish conventions A research team from the CNRS and Aix-Marseille Université has demonstrated that members of a group of baboons can establish shared social conventions - in this case, by all agreeing on how to solve a problem in order to get a reward faster.

Life Sciences - 01.12.2021
When variations in Earth's orbit drive biological evolution
When variations in Earth’s orbit drive biological evolution
Coccolithophores are microscopic algae that form tiny limestone plates, called coccoliths, around their single cells. The shape and size of coccoliths varies according to the species. After their death, coccolithophores sink to the bottom of the ocean and their coccoliths accumulate in sediments, which faithfully record the detailed evolution of these organisms over geological time.
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