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Environment - Life Sciences - 20.05.2019
A model to guide seed choices according to climate
A model to guide seed choices according to climate
How do you know if a seed is well suited to a given environment? How can you predict its yield for a particular climate? Farmers need to know the answers to these questions when choosing their seeds because yields depend on complex interactions between seed genotype and environmental conditions. Researchers at INRA and Wageningen University & Research (WUR, Netherlands) have developed a model to predict the yield of any maize hybrid based on its genes and environmental conditions.

Life Sciences - 07.05.2019
Tailor made interactions between the uterus and embryo
Tailor made interactions between the uterus and embryo
One of the crucial stages of gestation is implantation of the embryo in the uterus, in contact with a tissue called the endometrium. However, the mechanisms that enable this implantation remain largely unclear. A Franco-American collaboration co-led by INRA research scientists has revealed that intense and fine-tuned crosstalk is established between the embryo and endometrium, allowing them to adapt to each other.

Environment - Life Sciences - 08.04.2019
Biodiversity matters: rare species play an essential role in ecosystem multifunctionality
Biodiversity matters: rare species play an essential role in ecosystem multifunctionality
An international research team that included INRA and CNRS scientists has revealed the key role played by rare plant species in maintaining ecosystem "multifunctionality": both species and evolutionary diversity is important. This work was recently been published in PNAS . Based on data from 123 sampling sites around the world, the results show that taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic biodiversity matters for ecosystem functioning.

Life Sciences - 22.03.2019
The secret multicellular lives of viruses
The secret multicellular lives of viruses
INRA, CIRAD, and CNRS researchers recently made an unprecedented discovery: the different genomic segments of a multipartite 1 virus can occupy distinct cells within their host but still work together to generate infection. This finding challenges a key paradigm in virology, notably that a virus's entire genome must enter a given cell and replicate therein before repeating the process in subsequent cells, thus causing infection.

Life Sciences - Health - 20.03.2019
Control of mosquito-borne diseases: discovery of a new genetic element in the Wolbachia bacterium
Control of mosquito-borne diseases: discovery of a new genetic element in the Wolbachia bacterium
Researchers from INRA, CIRAD, CEA, the University of Montpellier, and Chicago and Vanderbilt Universities in the United States have developed an innovative method for analysing the genome of the Wolbachia bacterium. This endosymbiotic* bacterium infects more than 70% of insects and is capable of influencing insect transmission of pathogens such as dengue or Zika virus.

Life Sciences - 15.03.2019
The Clytia genome reveals the origins of the jellyfish
The Clytia genome reveals the origins of the jellyfish
Research teams from the Villefranche-sur-Mer Developmental Biology Laboratory (jointly managed by Sorbonne University and CNRS), in collaboration with the Biological Institute Paris-Seine (Sorbonne University), CEA-Genoscope and the University of Vienna have decoded the genome of the jellyfish Clytia.

Life Sciences - 14.03.2019
In this nematode species, males are needed for reproduction, but not because of their genes
In this nematode species, males are needed for reproduction, but not because of their genes
Publication from LBMC, IBENS and Isyeb in Science on March 15, 2019. In the Mesorhabditis belari roundworm, the sole purpose of males is to help females produce clones of themselves. This unique form of reproduction was recently described by researchers from the CNRS, l'ENS de Lyon, l'Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, and the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle in an article published on 15 March 2019 .

Life Sciences - Agronomy / Food Science - 10.01.2019
Crop plants could now reproduce clonally through seeds
Crop plants could now reproduce clonally through seeds
Grown throughout the world, F1 hybrid crop varieties have highly desirable traits. However, they remain expensive to produce. This situation may be about to change. By modifying the expression of certain genes, INRA researchers have created hybrid rice plants whose seeds give rise to offspring that are identical to the mother plant.

Life Sciences - 04.01.2019
Evolution: a new mechanism of genome size variation linked to the size of organisms discovered in tunicates
Publication from the IGFL in Current Biology on April 1st, 2019. The genome, which corresponds to the whole DNA content of a cell and is characteristic of an organism, can present big variations in size between species. If this size does not correlate with organismal "complexity", it is not clearly established yet if bigger or smaller genomes could be adaptive.

Life Sciences - Pharmacology - 21.12.2018
A novel antibiotic resistance mechanism
A novel antibiotic resistance mechanism
Bacteria make use of a number of natural resistance strategies to overcome antibiotics. And it seems that this bacterial toolbox may be much more varied than previously thought. Scientists at the Institut Pasteur, in collaboration with Inserm, INRA, the CNRS and the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel, have recently revealed an entirely unknown resistance mechanism in Listeria monocytogenes bacteria.

Life Sciences - Health - 17.12.2018
Discovery of novel mechanisms that cause migraines
Discovery of novel mechanisms that cause migraines
PARIS, 17 december 2018 Researchers at CNRS, Université Côte d'Azur and Inserm have demonstrated a new mechanism related to the onset of migraine. In fact, they found how a mutation, causes dysfunction in a protein which inhibits neuronal electrical activity, induces migraines. These results, published in Neuron on December 17, 2018, open a new path for the development of anti-migraine medicines.

Life Sciences - Health - 12.12.2018
MON 810 and NK603 GM Maize: No Effects Detected on Rat Health or Metabolism
MON 810 and NK603 GM Maize: No Effects Detected on Rat Health or Metabolism
A diet based on MON 810 or NK603 transgenic maize does not affect the health or metabolism of rats, under the conditions of the GMO 90+1 project 1 . This unprecedented study performed by a research consortium led by Inra brought together a number of partners 2 , including Inserm. For six months, rats were fed a diet containing either GM maize (MON 810 or NK603) or non-GM maize, in varying concentrations.

Life Sciences - Health - 06.12.2018
Silicosis is on the rise, but is there a therapeutic target ?
Silicosis is on the rise, but is there a therapeutic target ?
Paris, 6 December 2018 Researchers from the CNRS, the University of Orléans, and the company Artimmune, in collaboration with Turkish clinicians from Atatürk University, have identified a key mechanism of lung inflammation induced by silica exposure, which leads to silicosis, an incurable disease. Their study in mice and patients, published (December 6th, 2018), shows that this inflammation can be prevented by extracellular DNA degradation, suggesting a new therapeutic target.

Astronomy / Space Science - Life Sciences - 05.12.2018
Pollution : New ammonia emission sources detected from space
Pollution : New ammonia emission sources detected from space
Paris, December 5, 2018 Researchers from the CNRS 1 and the Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB) have prepared the first global map of the distribution of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) by analyzing measurements taken by satellites between 2008 and 2016. The IASI interferometer developed by the CNES allowed them to catalog more than 200 ammonia sources, two-thirds of which had never been identified before.

Life Sciences - 29.11.2018
A prosthetic arm that decodes phantom limb movements
A prosthetic arm that decodes phantom limb movements
Paris, 29 November 2018 About 75% of amputees exhibit mobility of their phantom limb. Using this information, in collaboration with physicians 1 , researchers from CNRS and Aix-Marseille University have developed a prototype capable of detecting these movements and activating a prosthetic arm. The prosthesis does not require any surgery and patients do not need training.

Life Sciences - 29.11.2018
Fruit flies can transmit their sexual preferences culturally
Fruit flies can transmit their sexual preferences culturally
Paris, November 29, 2018 Researchers from the CNRS and université Toulouse III – Paul Sabatier (UT3) show that fruit flies possess all of the cognitive capacities needed to culturally transmit their sexual preferences across generations. The study, published on November 30, 2018 in Science , provides the first experimental toolbox for studying the existence of animal cultures, thereby opening up an entire field of research.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 22.11.2018
The origins of asymmetry : A protein that makes you do the twist
The origins of asymmetry : A protein that makes you do the twist
Paris, 22 November 2018 Asymmetry plays a major role in biology at every scale: think of DNA spirals, the fact that the human heart is positioned on the left, our preference to use our left or right hand … A team from the Institute of biology Valrose (CNRS/Inserm/Université Côte d'Azur), in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Pennsylvania, has shown how a single protein induces a spiral motion in another molecule.

Life Sciences - Health - 15.11.2018
Stroke : preventing the damage by acting on the neuronal environment ?
Stroke : preventing the damage by acting on the neuronal environment ?
Paris, 15 November 2018 To protect neurons and limit the damage after a stroke, researchers from the CNRS, the University of Caen-Normandie, University Paris-Est Créteil, and the company OTR3 have pursued an innovative path: targeting the matrix that surrounds and supports brain cells. Their results, just published in the journal Theranostics , have confirmed this strategy on rats, and will lead to a clinical study between now and late 2019.

Life Sciences - 07.11.2018
"Nested sequences" : an indispensable mechanism for forming memories
A research team from CNRS, Université PSL, the Collège de France and Inserm has just lifted part of the veil surrounding brain activity during sleep. Though we know that some neurons are reactivated then to consolidate our memories, we did not know how these cells could “remember” which order to turn on in.

Environment - Life Sciences - 26.10.2018
Tara back from Pacific expedition with startling data : motley map of reef health
Tara back from Pacific expedition with startling data : motley map of reef health
After two and a half years navigating the Pacific, where over 40% of our planet's coral reefs are found, the schooner Tara returned to Lorient, its home port in Brittany, on October 27. Led by the Tara Expeditions Foundation, the Tara Pacific expedition deserves a round of applause: it has allowed scientists to study the impact of anthropogenic pressures on Pacific coral reefs using a novel approach on an unprecedented scale.

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