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Life Sciences - Health - 25.05.2022
Women-specific mechanisms may contribute to tumor progression
Women-specific mechanisms may contribute to tumor progression
Researchers have demonstrated the role of a non-coding RNA in the development of aggressive tumors, particularly in breast cancer. The study, conducted in collaboration between the Institut Curie, Inserm, CNRS, Institut Paoli Calmettes and Aix-Marseille University , has just been published in the journal Cell .

Health - Life Sciences - 17.05.2022
Phage Therapy: A Model to Predict Its Efficacy against Pathogenic Bacteria
Phage Therapy: A Model to Predict Its Efficacy against Pathogenic Bacteria
Antibiotic resistance represents a major public health challenge, associated with a high mortality rate. While bacteriophages - viruses that kill bacteria - could be a solution for fighting antibiotic-resistant pathogens, various obstacles stand in the way of their clinical development.

Life Sciences - Health - 10.05.2022
Healthy cells can impact tumour progression during embryonic development
Healthy cells can impact tumour progression during embryonic development
Half of childhood cancers arise during the development of the human embryo, which greatly complicates research into these diseases. The team of Valérie Castellani, CNRS senior researcher at the Mechanisms in Integrated Life Sciences (MeLiS) laboratory (CNRS / INSERM / Claude Bernard Lyon 1 University) has thus developed a model that optimally simulates the human embryonic environment by grafting human cancer cells into a chick embryo.

Health - Pharmacology - 04.05.2022
Influenza: A New Avenue for Developing Innovative Treatments
Influenza: A New Avenue for Developing Innovative Treatments
Seasonal influenza is a major public health issue because it continues to remain associated with considerable mortality, particularly among people who are elderly, immunocompromised, or both. It also has a significant socioeconomic cost. With vaccination and current treatments still being of limited efficacy, research teams are trying to develop new therapeutic approaches.

Health - Pharmacology - 20.04.2022
Infertility: New Avenues to Understand the Harmful Effects of Chemotherapy
Infertility: New Avenues to Understand the Harmful Effects of Chemotherapy
Infertility is a public health problem affecting millions of couples in France. Among the possible causes, chemotherapy has been singled out as having particularly harmful effects on the fertility of both women and men. In order to better prevent and restore fertility in cancer survivors, understanding the mechanisms behind these negative effects is a priority.

Life Sciences - Health - 15.04.2022
Decoding a direct dialog between the gut microbiota and the brain
Decoding a direct dialog between the gut microbiota and the brain
Gut microbiota by-products circulate in the bloodstream, regulating host physiological processes including immunity, metabolism and brain functions. Scientists from the Institut Pasteur (a partner research organization of Université Paris Cité), Inserm and the CNRS have discovered that hypothalamic neurons in an animal model directly detect variations in bacterial activity and adapt appetite and body temperature accordingly.

Health - Life Sciences - 14.04.2022
Colon cancer: how mutation of the APC gene disrupts lymphocyte migration
Migrating human T lymphocytes revealing a broad protrusion at the leading edge and long adhesive protrusions at the rear. Image obtained by confocal fluorescence microscopy: filamentous actin, pink; VLA4 adhesion protein, blue. Institut Pasteur/Lymphocyte Cell Biology. Image by Marta Mastrogiovanni In patients with familial adenomatous polyposis, a genetic disease predisposing to colon cancer, mutations of the APC gene induce the formation of intestinal polyps, but also reduce immune system activity.

Health - Social Sciences - 13.04.2022
Long COVID: When Symptoms Persist Months after the First Wave
Long COVID: When Symptoms Persist Months after the First Wave
Several months after infection with SARS-CoV-2, some patients are still having symptoms - a phenomenon known as "long COVID” or "post-COVID-19 condition”. Still poorly understood, scientists are now attentively studying long COVID in order to improve knowledge and offer patients the best possible treatment.

Health - Pharmacology - 12.04.2022
HIV: The Antibodies of 'Post-treatment Controllers'
HIV: The Antibodies of ’Post-treatment Controllers’
A very small percentage of people with HIV-1, known as "post-treatment controllers” (PTCs), are able to control their infection after interrupting all antiretroviral therapy. Understanding the fundamental mechanisms that govern their immune response is essential in order to develop HIV-1 vaccines, novel therapeutic strategies to achieve remission, or both.

Health - Agronomy / Food Science - 24.03.2022
Artificial Sweeteners: Possible Link to Increased Cancer Risk
Artificial Sweeteners: Possible Link to Increased Cancer Risk
Artificial sweeteners are used to reduce the amounts of added sugar in foods and beverages, thereby maintaining sweetness without the extra calories. These products, such as diet sodas, yoghurts and sweetener tablets for drinks, are consumed by millions of people daily. However, the safety of these additives is the subject of debate.

Pharmacology - Health - 24.03.2022
Increased Ischemic Stroke Risk Associated with Certain Medications for Nausea and Vomiting
Every year in France, 140,000 people have a stroke 1 . Around 80% are ischemic strokes or cerebral infarctions, which occur when a brain artery is obstructed by a blood clot. Studies have shown that the risk of ischemic stroke is increased by the use of antipsychotics: medications with antidopaminergic 2 properties that are commonly prescribed in psychiatry.

Health - Pharmacology - 21.03.2022
COVID-19: 'Reactive' Vaccination, Effective in Case of High Viral Circulation?
COVID-19: ’Reactive’ Vaccination, Effective in Case of High Viral Circulation?
Although the majority of its population is fully vaccinated, the virus continues to actively circulate in France. As health restrictions are being lifted, fears of a resurgence of the epidemic and of the emergence of new more contagious variants are leading scientists to consider new strategies to continue to promote vaccination among populations that remain hesitant.

Life Sciences - Health - 16.03.2022
Discovery of an immune escape mechanism promoting Listeria infection of the central nervous system
Discovery of an immune escape mechanism promoting Listeria infection of the central nervous system
Some "hypervirulent" strains of Listeria monocytogenes have a greater capacity to infect the central nervous system. Scientists from the Institut Pasteur, Université Paris Cité, Inserm and the Paris Public Hospital Network (AP-HP) have discovered a mechanism that enables cells infected with Listeria monocytogenes to escape immune responses.

Health - Pharmacology - 14.03.2022
MICA: A New Immune Response Gene That Predicts Kidney Transplant Failure
MICA: A New Immune Response Gene That Predicts Kidney Transplant Failure
Although a kidney transplant is the only curative treatment for end-stage kidney disease, the risk of the patient's body rejecting the graft means that success is not guaranteed. To reduce this risk, physicians are now able to look at a certain number of genetic and immunological parameters in order to evaluate the histocompatibility between donor and recipient - i.e. how compatible their organs and tissues are.

Health - Social Sciences - 01.03.2022
Significant Increase in Infant Mortality in France
The infant mortality rate (IMR) is a key indicator of population health. In the absence of updated data on the statistical trends of this indicator in France, researchers from Inserm, Université de Paris, the Paris public hospitals group (AP-HP) and Nantes University Hospital, in collaboration with teams from the University of California, analyzed civil registry data from the French National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies (INSEE) from 2001 to 2019.

Health - Pharmacology - 28.02.2022
Covid-19 - Towards a vaccination strategy adapted to immunosuppressed patients
Covid-19 - Towards a vaccination strategy adapted to immunosuppressed patients
Publication of the CIRI in the journal Science Translational Medicine on February 1 st , 2022. Claude Bernard Lyon 1 University focus on February 24, 2022. Transplant recipients, who receive therapeutic immunosuppression to prevent graft rejection, are characterized by high coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related mortality and defective response to vaccines.

Health - Pharmacology - 24.02.2022
Discovery of an innate immunological memory in the intestine
Discovery of an innate immunological memory in the intestine
The innate immune system plays a crucial role in regulating host-microbe interactions, and especially in providing protection against pathogens that invade the mucosa. Using an intestinal infection model, scientists from the Institut Pasteur and Inserm discovered that innate effector cells - group 3 innate lymphoid cells - act not only during the early stages of infection but can also be trained to develop an innate form of immunological memory that can protect the host during reinfection.

Health - Pharmacology - 24.02.2022
Better Understanding the Role of a White Blood Cell Type in SARS-CoV-2 Immune Response
Better Understanding the Role of a White Blood Cell Type in SARS-CoV-2 Immune Response
Although the response of various immune cells to SARS-CoV-2 infection has been relatively well studied, that of basophils (a category of white blood cells) had not been characterized yet - mainly because of their rarity in that they represent around 0.5% of the body's white blood cells. In a new study, researchers from Inserm, Sorbonne Université, Université de Paris, CNRS, Institut Pasteur and Efrei describe how basophils respond to SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Life Sciences - Health - 21.02.2022
Transplantation chemotherapy eliminates regenerative capacity of brain's innate immune cells
Transplantation chemotherapy eliminates regenerative capacity of brain’s innate immune cells
Brain microglia (green) initiating expression of cell division marker (red), but unable divide due to co-expression of a senescence marker (blue), due to the chemotherapy treatment (busulfan). K. Sailor/ PM Lledo, Institut Pasteur. Annually over 50,000 bone marrow transplantations occur worldwide as a therapy for multiple cancerous and non-cancerous diseases.

Health - Pharmacology - 17.02.2022
Defeating leukaemia cells by depriving them of energy
Defeating leukaemia cells by depriving them of energy
Selective activation of the AMPK enzyme would lead to the death of leukaemia cells (in purple in this image). Jérôme Tamburini / UNIGE High resolution pictures A Swiss-French team that includes scientists has discovered how to trigger apoptosis in leukaemia cells by disrupting their energy maintenance mechanism.
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