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Health - Linguistics / Literature - 11.12.2019
Speech could be older than we thought
Speech could be older than we thought
For 50 years, the theory of the "descended larynx" has stated that before speech can emerge, the larynx must be in a low position to produce differentiated vowels. Monkeys, which have a vocal tract anatomy that resembles that of humans in the essential articulators (tongue, jaw, lips) but with a higher larynx, could not produce differentiated vocalizations.

Life Sciences - Health - 24.09.2019
Disarming a probiotic to improve its benefits
Disarming a probiotic to improve its benefits
For more than a century, the Nissle 1917 strain of the bacterium Escherichia coli has been used as a probiotic to treat gastrointestinal disorders. However, this bacterium also produces a toxin, colibactin, which has deleterious effects on host DNA and might cause colon cancer. It is therefore crucial to understand the mechanisms at play in the strain if we wish to limit undesirable side effects.

Health - 05.08.2019
Enveloped viruses distinct from HBV induce dissemination of hepatitis D virus in vivo
Publication by the International Center for Infectiology Research (CIRI) on May 8, 2019. Hepatitis D virus (HDV) was discovered 40 years ago in the liver of individuals chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), a liver-specific human pathogen that provides its surface GPs to induce envelopment and secretion of HDV RNPs as well as transmission to other cells via HBV cell entry factors.

Life Sciences - Health - 25.07.2019
Artificial sweeteners: certain adverse metabolic effects revealed in a preclinical model
Artificial sweeteners: certain adverse metabolic effects revealed in a preclinical model
INRA researchers, in collaboration with the University of Adelaide, Australia, studied the effects that a widely used artificial sweetener blend, i.e. acesulfame K-sucralose, has on metabolism. For the first time, they revealed ' in animals ' an increase in glucose absorption, particularly in the brain and fatty tissues, indicating certain undesirable effects on metabolism and insulin sensitivity.

Health - 24.07.2019
Partially hydrolysed (hypoallergenic) baby formulas do not reduce allergy risks in infants
Partially hydrolysed (hypoallergenic) baby formulas do not reduce allergy risks in infants
Often, hypoallergenic formulas are recommended for infants who are not exclusively breastfed and who are at risk of developing allergies. While it is assumed that such formulas reduce the development of allergies later in life, it is unclear whether this claim is true. A team of INRA and INSERM researchers have shown that the consumption of partially hydrolysed (hypoallergenic) formulas was not associated with a reduced risk of developing allergies, findings that were recently published in the journal Pediatric Allergy and Immunology .

Pharmacology - Health - 10.07.2019
Pyrin dephosphorylation is sufficient to trigger inflammasome activation in Familial Mediterranean Fever patients
Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most frequent hereditary systemic autoinflammatory syndrome. FMF is usually caused by bi-allelic mutations in the MEFV gene, encoding Pyrin. Conclusive genetic evidence lacks for about 30% of patients diagnosed with clinical FMF. Pyrin is an inflammasome sensor maintained inactive by two kinases (PKN1/2).

Environment - Health - 13.06.2019
Better air quality: what should the target values be for improving health?
Better air quality: what should the target values be for improving health?
To produce a significant reduction in mortality due to fine particulates, their average level should be reduced by at least 3 micrograms per m3 as a yearly average, concludes an interdisciplinary study led by researchers from Inserm, the CNRS, INRA, Atmo Auvergne Rhône-Alpes and the Université Grenoble Alpes.

Health - Agronomy / Food Science - 12.06.2019
The natural lipids in buttermilk could contribute to reducing cardiovascular risk in vulnerable populations
A French consortium led by INRA, in collaboration with INSERM, the Universities of Lyon and Clermont Auvergne, Lyon Civil Hospitals and the Human Nutrition Research Centres (CRNH) of Rhône-Alpes and Auvergne, have now demonstrated that consuming certain lipids present naturally in dairy products (called "polar lipids") could reduce the cardiovascular risk in overweight postmenopausal women by lowering their blood levels of LDL-cholesterol ("bad" cholesterol) and triglycerides.

Life Sciences - Health - 11.06.2019
Bluetongue virus can hijack the cellular machinery of its host
Bluetongue virus can hijack the cellular machinery of its host
Researchers at INRA, ANSES, and ENVA have discovered that bluetongue virus can enhance its replication by exploiting one of its host's cellular pathways. Published in the Journal of Virology , their results could help the quest to identify effective antiviral compounds for combating the virus. Bluetongue virus (BTV) can infect wild and domestic species of ruminants (ovines, caprines, and bovines).

Health - Agronomy / Food Science - 05.06.2019
Consumption of ultra-processed food and risk of cardiovascular disease
Consumption of ultra-processed food and risk of cardiovascular disease
In an article published May 30, 2019 in the British Medical Journal , researchers from Inserm, Inra, Université Paris 13 and Cnam in the Nutritional Epidemiology Research Team (EREN) report an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in consumers of ultra-processed foods in the NutriNet-Santé cohort.

Health - Environment - 20.03.2019
Encouraging a holistic approach in the fight against infectious diseases
Infectious diseases, the main causes of human mortality according to the WHO, have always been a particular concern for society. In a context of global change, the fight against infectious diseases remains a major challenge for the future and especially for Dominique Pontier and François-Loïc Cosset, researchers at the Université de Lyon.

Life Sciences - Health - 20.03.2019
Control of mosquito-borne diseases: discovery of a new genetic element in the Wolbachia bacterium
Control of mosquito-borne diseases: discovery of a new genetic element in the Wolbachia bacterium
Researchers from INRA, CIRAD, CEA, the University of Montpellier, and Chicago and Vanderbilt Universities in the United States have developed an innovative method for analysing the genome of the Wolbachia bacterium. This endosymbiotic* bacterium infects more than 70% of insects and is capable of influencing insect transmission of pathogens such as dengue or Zika virus.

Life Sciences - Health - 17.12.2018
Discovery of novel mechanisms that cause migraines
Discovery of novel mechanisms that cause migraines
PARIS, 17 december 2018 Researchers at CNRS, Université Côte d'Azur and Inserm have demonstrated a new mechanism related to the onset of migraine. In fact, they found how a mutation, causes dysfunction in a protein which inhibits neuronal electrical activity, induces migraines. These results, published in Neuron on December 17, 2018, open a new path for the development of anti-migraine medicines.

Health - Agronomy / Food Science - 17.12.2018
A diet rich in cheese in early childhood may protect against allergies
A diet rich in cheese in early childhood may protect against allergies
A study conducted by the University Hospital of Besançon and INRA shows the protective effect of high cheese consumption from a very young age. For the first time, a link has been established between cheese consumption and the probability of developing food or skin allergic diseases, regardless of the consumption of various other foods (vegetables or fruits, cereals, bread, meat, cake and yogurt) and living conditions in a farm environment (presence and diversity of farm animals).

Health - Agronomy / Food Science - 17.12.2018
A diet rich in cheese in early childhood could protect against allergies
A diet rich in cheese in early childhood could protect against allergies
A study conducted by the University Hospital of Besançon and INRA shows the protective effect of high cheese consumption from a very young age. For the first time, a link has been established between cheese consumption and the probability of developing food or skin allergic diseases, regardless of the consumption of various other foods (vegetables or fruits, cereals, bread, meat, cake and yogurt) and living conditions in a farm environment (presence and diversity of farm animals).

Life Sciences - Health - 12.12.2018
MON 810 and NK603 GM Maize: No Effects Detected on Rat Health or Metabolism
MON 810 and NK603 GM Maize: No Effects Detected on Rat Health or Metabolism
A diet based on MON 810 or NK603 transgenic maize does not affect the health or metabolism of rats, under the conditions of the GMO 90+1 project 1 . This unprecedented study performed by a research consortium led by Inra brought together a number of partners 2 , including Inserm. For six months, rats were fed a diet containing either GM maize (MON 810 or NK603) or non-GM maize, in varying concentrations.

Life Sciences - Health - 06.12.2018
Silicosis is on the rise, but is there a therapeutic target ?
Silicosis is on the rise, but is there a therapeutic target ?
Paris, 6 December 2018 Researchers from the CNRS, the University of Orléans, and the company Artimmune, in collaboration with Turkish clinicians from Atatürk University, have identified a key mechanism of lung inflammation induced by silica exposure, which leads to silicosis, an incurable disease. Their study in mice and patients, published (December 6th, 2018), shows that this inflammation can be prevented by extracellular DNA degradation, suggesting a new therapeutic target.

Life Sciences - Health - 15.11.2018
Stroke : preventing the damage by acting on the neuronal environment ?
Stroke : preventing the damage by acting on the neuronal environment ?
Paris, 15 November 2018 To protect neurons and limit the damage after a stroke, researchers from the CNRS, the University of Caen-Normandie, University Paris-Est Créteil, and the company OTR3 have pursued an innovative path: targeting the matrix that surrounds and supports brain cells. Their results, just published in the journal Theranostics , have confirmed this strategy on rats, and will lead to a clinical study between now and late 2019.

Life Sciences - Health - 17.10.2018
Open science : International data exchange for sharing primate neuroimaging datasets
Open science : International data exchange for sharing primate neuroimaging datasets
The goal of the PRIME-DE1 data exchange is to make primate brain imaging datasets acquired in laboratories available to the entire scientific community. PRIME-DE was created by an international consortium of 22 teams—including six from the CNRS, INSERM, and the CEA—all working with macaques. Because the brains of macaques are organized so similarly to our own, these animals are crucial to the study of human brain function and pathology.

Innovation - Health - 10.10.2018
2018 CNRS Innovation Medals awarded to Valérie Castellani, Thierry Chartier, and Daniel Le Berre
2018 CNRS Innovation Medals awarded to Valérie Castellani, Thierry Chartier, and Daniel Le Berre
Valérie Castellani, Thierry Chartier, and Daniel Le Berre are the recipients of the 2018 CNRS Innovation Medals. All three will be handed their medals during a ceremony held on October 10 in Paris. Since 2011, CNRS Innovation Medals have recognized scientists whose outstanding research has led to innovations having notable technological, economic, therapeutic, or social impacts.

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