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Environment - Earth Sciences - 13.10.2021
Climate model shows that Venus could never have had oceans
Climate model shows that Venus could never have had oceans
Whether Venus, one of the Solar System's four terrestrial planets, ever had oceans remains an unsolved puzzle. Although an American study hypothesized involving in particular scientists from the CNRS and University of Versailles-Saint Quentin-en-Yvelines 1 (UVSQ). Using a state-of-the-art climate model, the research team has come up with an alternative scenario to the American study.

Environment - 04.10.2021
First European map of the insulating effect of forests
First European map of the insulating effect of forests
To cool off in summer, there's nothing better than a walk in the woods. Trees act as a buffer that cools the air beneath their foliage in summer and warms it in winter. This phenomenon is caused not only by the protection that the forest canopy provides, but also by the transpiration of trees in summer: trees absorb cooler water from the soil, and this water is then transported up to the leaves, ending up in the atmosphere and thus cooling the surrounding air.

Life Sciences - Environment - 13.09.2021
Cyclones starve North Atlantic seabirds
Cyclones starve North Atlantic seabirds
Every winter, thousands of emaciated seabird carcasses are found on North American and European shores. In an article published on the 13 September in Current Biology , an international team of scientists including the CNRS 1 has shown how cyclones are causing the deaths of these birds. The latter are frequently exposed to high-intensity cyclones, which can last several days, when they migrate from their Arctic nesting sites to the North Atlantic further south in order to winter in more favourable conditions.

Environment - Life Sciences - 02.08.2021
Bird and mammal diversity is declining with biological invasions
Bird and mammal diversity is declining with biological invasions
Biological invasions are one of the most important factors of biodiversity loss. They threaten the diversity of ecological strategies - the ways in which species feed, live, function and defend themselves - by up to 40% in birds and 11% in mammals. 11% of the evolutionary diversity of birds and mammals, i.e. their accumulated evolutionary history, is also threatened by biological invasions.

Paleontology - Environment - 29.06.2021
Decline of dinosaurs under way long before asteroid fell
Decline of dinosaurs under way long before asteroid fell
Ten million years before the well-known asteroid impact that marked the end of the Mesozoic Era, dinosaurs were already in decline. That is the conclusion of the Franco-Anglo-Canadian team led by CNRS researcher Fabien Condamine from the Institute of Evolutionary Science of Montpellier (CNRS / IRD / University of Montpellier), which studied evolutionary trends during the Cretaceous for six major families of dinosaurs, including those of the tyrannosaurs, triceratops, and hadrosaurs.

Life Sciences - Environment - 07.06.2021
ALPALGA: the search for mountain snow microalgae
ALPALGA: the search for mountain snow microalgae
High elevation snow is home to previously unknown species of microalgae. Scientists have created the ALPALGA consortium to study this ecosystem, which is threatened by climate change. According to their initial results, these microalgae are tiered to elevation, just like herbaceous plants and trees.

Environment - 03.06.2021
Antarctica: how have temperatures varied since the last glacial period?
Antarctica: how have temperatures varied since the last glacial period?
Scientists have established the most reliable estimates to date of past temperature variations in Antarctic They highlight significant differences in behaviour between West and East Antarctica. This study makes it possible to test and consolidate future climate projections. Antarctica has experienced significant temperature changes, especially since the last glacial period.

Environment - Life Sciences - 06.05.2021
In the Alps, climate change affects biodiversity
In the Alps, climate change affects biodiversity
The European Alps is certainly one of the most scrutinized mountain range in the world, as it forms a true open-air laboratory showing how climate change affects biodiversity. Although many studies have independently demonstrated the impact of climate change in the Alps on either the seasonal activity (i.e.

Environment - 26.04.2021
When Chauvet Cave artists created its artwork, the Pont d'Arc was already there
When Chauvet Cave artists created its artwork, the Pont d’Arc was already there
The Chauvet Cave, which lies by the entrance to the Gorges of the Ardèche, is home to the world's oldest cave paintings, dating back 36,000 years. Their state of preservation and aesthetic qualities earned them a spot on the World Heritage List in 2014, 20 years after their discovery. The location of the cavern-surrounded by a remarkable landscape, next to the Pont d'Arc natural archway-raises the question of whether the people who executed these artworks looked and walked out upon the same landscape as today.

Astronomy / Space Science - Environment - 08.04.2021
More than 5,000 tons of extraterrestrial dust fall to Earth each year
More than 5,000 tons of extraterrestrial dust fall to Earth each year
Every year, our planet encounters dust from comets 1 and asteroid 2 . These interplanetary dust particles pass through our atmosphere and give rise to shooting stars. Some of them reach the ground in the form of micrometeorites. An international program 3 conducted for nearly 20 years by scientists from the CNRS, the Université Paris-Saclay and the National museum of natural history 4 with the support of the French polar institute, has determined that 5,200 tons per year of these micrometeorites reach the ground.

Environment - Economics / Business - 31.03.2021
How much are invasive species costing us?
How much are invasive species costing us?
Scientists from the CNRS, the IRD, and the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle have just released the most comprehensive estimate to date of the financial toll of invasive species: nearly $1.3 trillion over four decades. Published in Nature (31 March 2021), their findings are based on the InvaCost database, which is financed by the BNP Paribas Foundation and the Paris-Saclay University Foundation's AXA Chair of Invasion Biology.

Environment - 24.03.2021
Climate change has reduced ocean mixing far more than expected
Climate change has reduced ocean mixing far more than expected
The ocean is dynamic in nature, playing a crucial role as a planetary thermostat that buffer global warming. However, in response to climate change, the ocean has generally become stabler over the past 50 years. Six times stabler, in fact, than previously estimated-as shown by a new study that researchers from the CNRS, Sorbonne University, and IFREMER have conducted within the scope of an international collaboration.

Environment - 02.03.2021
Ecology: The Scientific Literature Dominated by Men and a Handful of Countries
Publishing in peer-reviewed scientific journals is crucial for the development of a researcher's career. The scientists that publish the most often in the most prestigious journals generally acquire greater renown, as well as higher responsibilities. However, a team involving two CNRS researchers 1 has just shown that the vast majority of scientific articles in the fields of ecology and conservation biology are authored by men working in a few Western countries.

Health - Environment - 11.02.2021
Heat islands and lack of running water promote dengue fever in Delhi, India
Heat islands and lack of running water promote dengue fever in Delhi, India
What if more inclusive urban planning for poor populations was key to fighting dengue fever? This is what researchers from the CNRS, the Institut Pasteur and the Indian Council of Medical Research 1 have demonstrated using a geographical approach applied to the greater city of Delhi (India). Their study is published in the journal PLOS Neglected Tropical Disease on 11 February 2021.

History / Archeology - Environment - 27.01.2021
History of the Champagne vineyards revealed
History of the Champagne vineyards revealed
Although the reputation of Champagne is well established, the history of Champagne wines and vineyards is poorly documented. However, a research team led by scientists from the CNRS and the Université de Montpellier at the Institut des sciences de l'évolution de Montpellier 1 has just lifted the veil on this history by analysing the archaeological grape seeds from excavations carried out in Troyes and Reims.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 07.12.2020
Getting to the bottom of Arctic landslides
Getting to the bottom of Arctic landslides
Erosion of the frozen soil of Arctic regions, known as permafrost, is creating large areas of subsidence, which has catastrophic impact in these regions sensitive to climate change. As the mechanisms behind these geological events are poorly understood, researchers from the Géosciences Paris Sud (GEOPS) laboratory (CNRS / Université Paris-Saclay), in cooperation with the Melnikov Permafrost Institute in Yakutsk, Russia, conducted a cold room 1 simulation of landslides, or slumps, caused by accelerated breakdown of the permafrost.

Environment - 07.12.2020
Nature's contributions to people found to be in decline
Nature’s contributions to people found to be in decline
Over the past 50 years, declining biodiversity has put many of nature's contributions to people at risk.  This is the conclusion reached by fifteen leading international experts, including a French ethnoecologist 1 at the CNRS (French National Centre for Scientific Research).

Environment - 09.11.2020
From green to orange, where does the diversity of cyanobacteria colours come from?
From green to orange, where does the diversity of cyanobacteria colours come from?
Cyanobacteria, which are often called blue algae, can actually adopt colours ranging from green to orange via pink, depending on the dominant photosynthetic pigment in the cells of particular species. Not all cyanobacteria, however, capture light in the same way: Prochlorococcus , for example, the most abundant cyanobacterium in the ocean, preferentially absorbs violet and blue wavelengths, while its cousin Synechococcus captures blue, green or both, depending on its pigment type.

Environment - 14.10.2020
Unexpectedly large number of trees populate the Western Sahara and the Sahel
Unexpectedly large number of trees populate the Western Sahara and the Sahel
The number of trees inhabiting the Western Sahara, the Sahel and the Sudanian zone has exceeded the expectations of scientists, with more than 1.8 billion having been located thanks to an international collaboration including researchers from the CNRS 1 . High-resolution remote sensing made it possible to gather a multitude of satellite images of these areas, which were then analysed by applying an artificial intelligence pattern recognition method.

Environment - Earth Sciences - 08.10.2020
Double jeopardy for ecologically rare birds and terrestrial mammals
Double jeopardy for ecologically rare birds and terrestrial mammals
Common assumptions notwithstanding, rare species can play unique and essential ecological roles.  After studying two databases that together cover all known terrestrial mammals and birds worldwide, scientists from the CNRS, the Foundation for Biodiversity Research (FRB), Université Grenoble Alpes, and the University of Montpellier 1 have demonstrated that, though these species are found on all continents, they are more threatened by human pressures than ecologically common species and will also be more impacted by future climate change.
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