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Psychology - Computer Science - 31.05.2022
Do Some Cognitive Biases Contaminate Even Our Simplest Mental Mechanisms?
When we implement complex cognitive processes, for example when making decisions, we are subject to cognitive bias. But what about simpler processes, such as those involved in the most basic learning? In a new study analyzing data from all previous research in the field, researchers from Inserm and ENS-PSL show that not only are positivity and confirmation biases present even in the simplest human and animal cognitive processes, but also that incorporating them into learning algorithms would enhance their performance.

Life Sciences - Psychology - 20.01.2022
New Brain Abnormalities Associated with Child Abuse
New Brain Abnormalities Associated with Child Abuse
In collaboration with a Canadian team, scientists from Inserm and Université de Tours, at Unit 1253 Imaging & Brain1, have shown in post-mortem brain samples that victims of child abuse present specific brain characteristics. The teams have revealed for the first time in humans an increase in the number and maturation of perineuronal nets, dense protein structures surrounding the neurons.

Psychology - Life Sciences - 08.11.2017
Memory : recognizing images seen briefly ten years previously
Recalling the names of old classmates 50 years after graduation or of favorite childhood television series illustrates the amazing abilities of human memory. Emotion and repeated exposure are both known to play a role in long-term memorization, but why do we remember things that are not emotionally charged and have only been seen or experienced a few times in the past?

Psychology - Life Sciences - 23.10.2017
Interaction Between Brain and Heart May be New Indicator of State of Consciousness
How do we know whether a patient is conscious when he or she is unable to communicate? According to an Inserm study conducted in 127 patients aged 17 to 80, changes in heartbeat in response to sound stimulation is a good indicator of state of consciousness. This is what Inserm researcher Jacobo Sitt and his team, based at the Brain & Spine Institute (ICM) at Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, AP-HP, demonstrate in an article published in Annals of neurology.

Health - Psychology - 02.10.2017
Prenatal exposure to endocrine disruptors and behavioral problems in children
An epidemiological study carried out by Inserm on families from the EDEN cohort (500 boys born between 2003 and 2006 and their mothers) shows that exposure during pregnancy to certain phenols and phthalates is associated with behavioral problems in boys between 3 and 5 years of age. The most worrying compounds in this respect are bisphenol A, triclosan and dibutyl phthalate (DBP).

Life Sciences - Psychology - 15.06.2017
What the pupils tells us about language
What the pupils tells us about language
The meaning of a word is enough to trigger a reaction in our pupil: when we read or hear a word with a meaning associated with luminosity (“sun,” “shine,” etc.), our pupils contract as they would if they were actually exposed to greater luminosity. And the opposite occurs with a word associated with darkness (“night,” “gloom,” etc.

Psychology - Life Sciences - 08.02.2016
Toxoplasmosis: morbid attraction to leopards in parasitized chimpanzees
Researchers from the Centre d'Écologie Fonctionnelle et Évolutive (CNRS/Université de Montpellier/Université Paul Valéry Montpellier 3/EPHE) have shown that chimpanzees infected with toxoplasmosis are attracted by the urine of their natural predators, leopards, but not by urine from other large felines.

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