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Environment - 19.09.2022
Climate change: a threat to urban trees
Climate change: a threat to urban trees
Trees play an essential role in the well-being of city dwellers - but for how long? An international research team, including a CNRS researcher from the Ecology and Dynamic of Anthropogenic Systems laboratory at the University of Picardy Jules Verne (Laboratoire Ecologie et dynamique des systèmes anthropisés, CNRS/Université of Picardy Jules Verne) 1 , has published the first global risk assessment for tree species planted in cities in the curre

Life Sciences - 15.09.2022
How does our brain react when we explore something new?
How does our brain react when we explore something new?
In a constantly changing world, making good decisions requires the ability to explore different strategies and to identify the one that will be the most appropriate. Research conducted by a team of neuroscientists from Inserm and CNRS at the École Normale Supérieure - PSL, in collaboration with Harvard University (USA), has made it possible to characterize this cognitive process by recording the tiny changes in the magnetic field emitted by the activity of the human brain.

Life Sciences - History / Archeology - 09.09.2022
The origins of donkey domestication
The origins of donkey domestication
The donkey has shaped the history of humankind, both as a source of power for farm work, and of transportation in sometimes hard to reach areas. To understand the history of the donkey's domestication, teams at the Centre for Anthropobiology and Genomics of Toulouse (CNRS/ Université Toulouse 3 Paul Sabatier) and scientists 1 from 37 laboratories around the world worked together to build and analyse the most complete panel of genomes ever studied for this animal.

Health - Life Sciences - 08.09.2022
COVID-19: Keys to the disease in the past of primate and bat genes?
Publication of the CIRI in the journal PNAS . CNRS-INSB communication on September 7, 2022. The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a coronavirus that spilled over from the bat reservoir. Despite numerous clinical trials and vaccines, the burden remains immense, and the host determinants of SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility and COVID-19 severity remain largely unknown.

Health - Agronomy / Food Science - 08.09.2022
Artificial Sweeteners: Possible Link to Increased Cardiovascular Disease Risk
Artificial Sweeteners: Possible Link to Increased Cardiovascular Disease Risk
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Identifying the risk factors associated with these diseases in order to better prevent them represents a real public health challenge. A group of researchers from Inserm, INRAE, Cnam and Université Sorbonne Paris Nord within the Nutritional epidemiology research team (Eren) studied the health impacts of artificial sweetener consumption.

Life Sciences - Health - 30.08.2022
New therapeutic prospect for preeclampsia
New therapeutic prospect for preeclampsia
Preeclampsia is a condition that affects the placenta during pregnancy and is dangerous for both the fetus and the mother. Scientists from the Institut Pasteur, Inserm and the CNRS have proposed a new therapy, tested in two rodent models, that corrects the defects identified in placental cells, and restores placental and fetal weight.

Earth Sciences - Astronomy / Space Science - 25.08.2022
Planet Mars: Perseverance rover makes surprising geological discoveries in Jezero Crater
Planet Mars: Perseverance rover makes surprising geological discoveries in Jezero Crater
On February 21, 2021, NASA's Perseverance rover landed in the Jezero Crater on Mars. In October 1 , the rover confirmed the importance of its landing site, showing that Jezero Crater really was the site of a lake 3.6 billion years ago. Perseverance's geological discoveries in the crater's floor are described in four papers published on August 25, 2022 in Science and Science Advances .

Social Sciences - Health - 24.08.2022
High Temperatures Have Short-Term Impact on All Major Causes of Death, Including Suicide
High Temperatures Have Short-Term Impact on All Major Causes of Death, Including Suicide
Temperature and mortality are linked. There is a short-term increase in mortality when temperatures are at their hottest or coldest - a phenomenon known as a "U-shaped relationship”.

Paleontology - Life Sciences - 24.08.2022
Sahelanthropus, the oldest representative of humanity, was indeed bipedal...but that's not all!
Sahelanthropus, the oldest representative of humanity, was indeed bipedal...but that’s not all!
The modalities and date of emergence of bipedalism remain bitterly debated, in particular because of a small number of very old human fossils. Sahelanthropus tchadensis , discovered in 2001 in Chad, is considered to be the oldest representative of the humankind. The shape of its cranium suggests a bipedal station.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 17.08.2022
Plate tectonics drives ocean oxygenation
Plate tectonics drives ocean oxygenation
Until now, it has been assumed that the oxygenation of the oceans over geological timescales has mainly been driven by atmospheric oxygen levels. However, a new study published in Nature June 27 2022   suggests otherwise. Work by scientists at the Biogeosciences Laboratory (CNRS/UBFC), together with their colleagues at the University of California's Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, shows that the movement of tectonic plates has probably contributed to ocean oxygenation.

Health - Life Sciences - 05.08.2022
Functional ultrasound microscopy: probing the activity of the whole brain at the microscopic level
Functional ultrasound microscopy: probing the activity of the whole brain at the microscopic level
Ultrasound is transforming the field of neuroimaging, thanks to technological advances made over the last decade by the Physics for Medicine laboratory (Inserm, ESPCI Paris - PSL, CNRS). The introduction of functional ultrasound imaging (fUS) in 2009 provided neuroscientists with a unique technology - portable, easy to use, and reasonably priced - to visualize brain activity with high sensitivity.

Life Sciences - Physics - 29.07.2022
Manipulating chromosomes in living cells reveals that they are fluid
Manipulating chromosomes in living cells reveals that they are fluid
Chromosomes are fluid - almost liquid - outside their division phases. This discovery was made possible thanks to the direct mechanical manipulation, for the very first time, of chromosomes in the nucleus of living cells. Until then, chromosomes - which are very long DNA molecules - were represented as being entangled like loose balls of yarn, and forming a sort of gel.

Astronomy / Space Science - 28.07.2022
Research INSTITUT-IphU A Long Time Ago, in a Galaxy Far, Far Away... with JWST
The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is the successor of the Hubble Space Telescope. JWST is designed to answer outstanding questions about our origins: from the formation of stars and planets to the birth of the first galaxies in the early Universe. JWST was built by an international partnership between NASA, ESA, and CSA.

Life Sciences - Physics - 28.07.2022
A 'Nano-Robot' Built Entirely from DNA to Explore Cell Processes
A ’Nano-Robot’ Built Entirely from DNA to Explore Cell Processes
Constructing a tiny robot from DNA and using it to study cell processes invisible to the naked eye. You would be forgiven for thinking it is science fiction, but it is in fact the subject of serious research by scientists from Inserm, CNRS and Université de Montpellier at the Structural Biology Center in Montpellier .

Life Sciences - 27.07.2022
A methodological leap in the exploration of memory
A methodological leap in the exploration of memory
Neurons communicate with each other across synapses, areas of close contact where neurotransmitter molecules released from one neuron act on receptors embedded in the membrane of the opposite neuron. Previous research conducted by the team of Daniel Choquet, researcher at the CNRS and Director of the Interdisciplinary Institute for Neurosciences (CNRS/University of Bordeaux) had discovered that these receptors are not stationary, but instead move constantly in the membrane.

Health - Life Sciences - 20.07.2022
Pain Intensity Is Controlled by Our Internal Clock
As with many of the body's functions, pain intensity is controlled by our internal clock. This is what a team of Inserm researchers at the Lyon Neuroscience Research Center (Inserm/Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1/CNRS) has recently discovered. They show that pain oscillates over 24 hours with a peak at night and a decrease in the afternoon, regardless of the sleep-wake cycle or any external stimulation.

Life Sciences - Psychology - 19.07.2022
Questioning the universal application of neurocognitive tests
Questioning the universal application of neurocognitive tests
Human interactions are enabled by a set of neurocognitive mechanisms defined by the notion of social cognition. In order to detect patients with social cognition disorders, specialists use internationally validated evaluation tests. However, most of these tests have been developed in industrialized Western countries, which raises questions about the relevance of generalizing them to the whole of humanity.

Life Sciences - Psychology - 19.07.2022
Questioning the Universal Application of Neurocognitive Tests
Questioning the Universal Application of Neurocognitive Tests
Human interactions are enabled by a set of neurocognitive mechanisms defined by the concept of "social cognition”. In order to identify social cognition disorders, specialists use internationally validated evaluation tests. However, these are most often developed in western, industrialized countries, which could question the relevance of applying them to all humanity.

Psychology - Health - 18.07.2022
Online mindfulness meditation practice effective in improving mental health of confined students
Online mindfulness meditation practice effective in improving mental health of confined students
This study by scientists at the Institut des sciences du mouvement Etienne-Jules Marey (CNRS/Aix-Marseille Université) reveals students' psychological distress during COVID-19-related lockdown and distance learning, as well as the effectiveness of an online mindfulness meditation practice in countering it.

Health - Life Sciences - 13.07.2022
Towards a New Drug Class in the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes
Towards a New Drug Class in the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a major public health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. Developing new drugs to help better treat its underlying causes is therefore a research priority. In a new study coordinated by Inserm researcher Vincent Marion in collaboration with the University of Birmingham (UK), Monash University (Australia), and along with Alexander Fleming, former senior endocrinologist the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the scientists have developed PATAS, a peptide that is part of a new class of antidiabetic drugs.
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