news 2018

Environment - Nov 27
Environment
Since 2013, a European Union (EU) moratorium has restricted the application of three neonicotinoids to crops that attract bees because of the harmful effects they are deemed to have on these insects. Yet researchers from the CNRS, INRA, and the Institut de l'Abeille (ITSAP) have just demonstrated that residues of these insecticides-and especially of imidacloprid-can still be detected in rape nectar from 48% of the plots of studied fields, their concentrations varying greatly over the years.
Environment - Nov 15
Environment

Scientists from Inra and the Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna (Italy) have shown that not all weed communities (spontaneous vegetation) generate crop yield losses, even in unweeded conditions, and that high weed diversity is associated to a reduced risk of important crop yield losses.

Life Sciences - Sep 24
Life Sciences

For more than a century, the Nissle 1917 strain of the bacterium Escherichia coli has been used as a probiotic to treat gastrointestinal disorders.

Earth Sciences - Oct 9
Earth Sciences

Researchers from INRA and CNRS have shown for the first time that bee pollination surpasses the use of pesticides in yield and especially in profitability of oilseed rape.

Physics - Sep 6
Physics

Evanescent Acoustic Beam Moves Suspended Particles at Lower Cost & Energy Consumption Than Existing Propagative Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Systems.


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Life Sciences - Pharmacology - 21.12.2018
A novel antibiotic resistance mechanism
A novel antibiotic resistance mechanism
Bacteria make use of a number of natural resistance strategies to overcome antibiotics. And it seems that this bacterial toolbox may be much more varied than previously thought. Scientists at the Institut Pasteur, in collaboration with Inserm, INRA, the CNRS and the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel, have recently revealed an entirely unknown resistance mechanism in Listeria monocytogenes bacteria.

Chemistry - Physics - 21.12.2018
Fast fine art : 19th century painting tricks revealed
Fast fine art : 19th century painting tricks revealed
Paris, 9 January 2017 To paint quickly while creating exceptional texture and volume effects, J. M. W. Turner and other English artists of his generation relied on the development of innovative gels. All the rage in the 19th century—and still in use today—these compounds alter the properties of the oil paints they are combined with.

Life Sciences - Health - 17.12.2018
Discovery of novel mechanisms that cause migraines
Discovery of novel mechanisms that cause migraines
PARIS, 17 december 2018 Researchers at CNRS, Université Côte d'Azur and Inserm have demonstrated a new mechanism related to the onset of migraine. In fact, they found how a mutation, causes dysfunction in a protein which inhibits neuronal electrical activity, induces migraines. These results, published in Neuron on December 17, 2018, open a new path for the development of anti-migraine medicines.

Health - Agronomy / Food Science - 17.12.2018
A diet rich in cheese in early childhood may protect against allergies
A diet rich in cheese in early childhood may protect against allergies
A study conducted by the University Hospital of Besançon and INRA shows the protective effect of high cheese consumption from a very young age. For the first time, a link has been established between cheese consumption and the probability of developing food or skin allergic diseases, regardless of the consumption of various other foods (vegetables or fruits, cereals, bread, meat, cake and yogurt) and living conditions in a farm environment (presence and diversity of farm animals).

Health - Agronomy / Food Science - 17.12.2018
A diet rich in cheese in early childhood could protect against allergies
A diet rich in cheese in early childhood could protect against allergies
A study conducted by the University Hospital of Besançon and INRA shows the protective effect of high cheese consumption from a very young age. For the first time, a link has been established between cheese consumption and the probability of developing food or skin allergic diseases, regardless of the consumption of various other foods (vegetables or fruits, cereals, bread, meat, cake and yogurt) and living conditions in a farm environment (presence and diversity of farm animals).

Life Sciences - Health - 12.12.2018
MON 810 and NK603 GM Maize: No Effects Detected on Rat Health or Metabolism
MON 810 and NK603 GM Maize: No Effects Detected on Rat Health or Metabolism
A diet based on MON 810 or NK603 transgenic maize does not affect the health or metabolism of rats, under the conditions of the GMO 90+1 project 1 . This unprecedented study performed by a research consortium led by Inra brought together a number of partners 2 , including Inserm. For six months, rats were fed a diet containing either GM maize (MON 810 or NK603) or non-GM maize, in varying concentrations.

Life Sciences - Health - 06.12.2018
Silicosis is on the rise, but is there a therapeutic target ?
Silicosis is on the rise, but is there a therapeutic target ?
Paris, 6 December 2018 Researchers from the CNRS, the University of Orléans, and the company Artimmune, in collaboration with Turkish clinicians from Atatürk University, have identified a key mechanism of lung inflammation induced by silica exposure, which leads to silicosis, an incurable disease. Their study in mice and patients, published (December 6th, 2018), shows that this inflammation can be prevented by extracellular DNA degradation, suggesting a new therapeutic target.

Astronomy / Space Science - Life Sciences - 05.12.2018
Pollution : New ammonia emission sources detected from space
Pollution : New ammonia emission sources detected from space
Paris, December 5, 2018 Researchers from the CNRS 1 and the Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB) have prepared the first global map of the distribution of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) by analyzing measurements taken by satellites between 2008 and 2016. The IASI interferometer developed by the CNES allowed them to catalog more than 200 ammonia sources, two-thirds of which had never been identified before.

Life Sciences - 29.11.2018
A prosthetic arm that decodes phantom limb movements
A prosthetic arm that decodes phantom limb movements
Paris, 29 November 2018 About 75% of amputees exhibit mobility of their phantom limb. Using this information, in collaboration with physicians 1 , researchers from CNRS and Aix-Marseille University have developed a prototype capable of detecting these movements and activating a prosthetic arm. The prosthesis does not require any surgery and patients do not need training.

Astronomy / Space Science - Physics - 29.11.2018
A new method for weighing super-massive black holes
A new method for weighing super-massive black holes
Paris, 29 November 2018 Scientists have revealed, for the first time outside our Galaxy, the properties of rapidly moving gas clouds in the immediate vicinity of a super-massive black hole, enabling the mass of the black hole to be measured with unprecedented accuracy.

Life Sciences - 29.11.2018
Fruit flies can transmit their sexual preferences culturally
Fruit flies can transmit their sexual preferences culturally
Paris, November 29, 2018 Researchers from the CNRS and université Toulouse III – Paul Sabatier (UT3) show that fruit flies possess all of the cognitive capacities needed to culturally transmit their sexual preferences across generations. The study, published on November 30, 2018 in Science , provides the first experimental toolbox for studying the existence of animal cultures, thereby opening up an entire field of research.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 22.11.2018
The origins of asymmetry : A protein that makes you do the twist
The origins of asymmetry : A protein that makes you do the twist
Paris, 22 November 2018 Asymmetry plays a major role in biology at every scale: think of DNA spirals, the fact that the human heart is positioned on the left, our preference to use our left or right hand … A team from the Institute of biology Valrose (CNRS/Inserm/Université Côte d'Azur), in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Pennsylvania, has shown how a single protein induces a spiral motion in another molecule.

Life Sciences - Health - 15.11.2018
Stroke : preventing the damage by acting on the neuronal environment ?
Stroke : preventing the damage by acting on the neuronal environment ?
Paris, 15 November 2018 To protect neurons and limit the damage after a stroke, researchers from the CNRS, the University of Caen-Normandie, University Paris-Est Créteil, and the company OTR3 have pursued an innovative path: targeting the matrix that surrounds and supports brain cells. Their results, just published in the journal Theranostics , have confirmed this strategy on rats, and will lead to a clinical study between now and late 2019.

Life Sciences - 07.11.2018
"Nested sequences" : an indispensable mechanism for forming memories
A research team from CNRS, Université PSL, the Collège de France and Inserm has just lifted part of the veil surrounding brain activity during sleep. Though we know that some neurons are reactivated then to consolidate our memories, we did not know how these cells could “remember” which order to turn on in.

Earth Sciences - Environment - 07.11.2018
Launch of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS) : Earth System Science enters the Big Data era
Wednesday 7 November 2018 officially launches the European Plate Observing System (EPOS) for the pooling and streamlining of data and services of all kinds for the study of our planet. This initiative, for which the CNRS and BRGM are working together with the French Ministry for Higher Education, Research and Innovation, in part aims to better understand the mechanisms behind earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

Environment - Life Sciences - 26.10.2018
Tara back from Pacific expedition with startling data : motley map of reef health
Tara back from Pacific expedition with startling data : motley map of reef health
After two and a half years navigating the Pacific, where over 40% of our planet's coral reefs are found, the schooner Tara returned to Lorient, its home port in Brittany, on October 27. Led by the Tara Expeditions Foundation, the Tara Pacific expedition deserves a round of applause: it has allowed scientists to study the impact of anthropogenic pressures on Pacific coral reefs using a novel approach on an unprecedented scale.

Life Sciences - Health - 17.10.2018
Open science : International data exchange for sharing primate neuroimaging datasets
Open science : International data exchange for sharing primate neuroimaging datasets
The goal of the PRIME-DE1 data exchange is to make primate brain imaging datasets acquired in laboratories available to the entire scientific community. PRIME-DE was created by an international consortium of 22 teams—including six from the CNRS, INSERM, and the CEA—all working with macaques. Because the brains of macaques are organized so similarly to our own, these animals are crucial to the study of human brain function and pathology.

Life Sciences - 11.10.2018
Optical illusion spooks raptors
Optical illusion spooks raptors
Researchers from the CNRS and Université de Rennes 1 1 , in collaboration with Airbus, have designed a visual pattern that elicits long-term avoidance of high-risk areas by raptors. The scientists' work clears the way for further investigation into the visual cognition of these birds, and it has applications for conservation, because raptors are among the most common victims of collisions with planes and wind turbines.

Life Sciences - 11.10.2018
Do lizards dream like us ?
Do lizards dream like us ?
Researchers from the Sleep Team at the Lyon Neuroscience Research Center (CNRS / INSERM / Claude Bernard Lyon 1 University / Université Jean Monnet), together with a colleague from the MECADEV research laboratory (CNRS / Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle) 1 have confirmed that lizards exhibit two sleep states, just like humans, other mammals, and birds.

Life Sciences - Chemistry - 10.10.2018
Questioning the link between pollution by magnetite particles and Alzheimer’s disease
A 2016 study 1 showed that exposure to urban pollution involving magnetite particles played a role in the development of Alzheimer's disease. It began from the hypothesis that magnetite particles would generate chemical reactions that could cause oxidative stress for neurons. CNRS researchers have now called this connection into question, showing that it is very unlikely that magnetite is involved in neuron degeneration.
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